Medical Engineering

The development of medical equipment, products and technical procedures is characterized by high research and development costs in a variety of fields related to the study of human medicine.

innovations-report provides informative and stimulating reports and articles on topics ranging from imaging processes, cell and tissue techniques, optical techniques, implants, orthopedic aids, clinical and medical office equipment, dialysis systems and x-ray/radiation monitoring devices to endoscopy, ultrasound, surgical techniques, and dental materials.

From aircraft aerodynamics to improved heart implants

At first glance airplane wings and human hearts have little in common, but, say a team of European researchers, a technology used to measure airflow over wings can now be used to help keep hearts in working order.

The researchers optimised a Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) system traditionally used to improve the aerodynamics of aircraft wings to make it capable of accurately measuring the effects of medical implants on blood flow. Their work will allow medical device manufactu

CAD helps detect smaller potentially more aggressive breast cancers in younger women

A computer-aided detection system not only helps radiologists detect more breast cancers, but also helps detect smaller tumors in younger women, a new study shows.

The study included 27,274 screening mammograms done over a three year period—19,402 were done using a computer-aided mammography detection system (CAD); 7,872 were mammography studies done before the CAD system was installed, said Tommy E. Cupples, MD of ImageCare, LLC in Columbia, SC, and the lead author of the study.

Scientists Develop Screening Method for Pancreatic Cancer

Scientists at the University of Liverpool have found a way of identifying families at high risk of pancreatic cancer.

The team has developed a novel means of testing for pancreatic cancer that will enable doctors to treat the killer disease at its earliest stages. They are also now able to show how the risk of cancer for these patients changes with age.

The Liverpool-based study group known as EUROPAC (European Registry Of Hereditary Pancreatitis And Familial Pancreat

Digital mammography trial results announced

Preliminary results from a large, clinical trial of digital vs. film mammography show no difference in detecting breast cancer for the general population of women in the trial. However, those women with dense breasts, who are pre- or perimenopausal (women who had a last menstrual period within 12 months of their mammograms), or who are younger than age 50 may benefit from having a digital rather than a film mammogram. The results were reported September 16, 2005 in a special online publication

Mayo Clinic develops new coma measurement system

Tool quantifies level of consciousness, severity of brain injury

Mayo Clinic neurologists have created the first new, reliable and easy-to-use clinical tool in 30 years for measuring coma depth, a proposed replacement for the Glasgow Coma Scale. The new scoring system, called the FOUR (Full Outline of UnResponsiveness) Score, will be described in the October issue of Annals of Neurology, to be published online Friday, Sept. 9.

When using the FOUR Score, evaluators a

3D MRI Useful in Detecting Most Lethal of All Major Cancers

3D MRI can detect pancreatic cancer when it is smaller and patients have a greater likelihood of survival, a new study shows.

The study included 57 patients who had clinical symptoms of pancreatic cancer. All had contrast enhanced 3D gradient-echo MRI examinations. Radiologists correctly identified pancreatic cancer in 24 patients, said Richard Semelka, MD, professor of radiology, at the University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, and an author of the study. Eight of the cancers fo

Short-term bio sensors monitor from afar

A temporary under-the-skin sensor could monitor a variety of health indicators for soldiers, athletes, diabetics, infants, and critically ill patients without wires and at a distance, according to a team of Penn State chemical engineers.

“We were asked to develop micro sensors for metabolic monitoring of troops,” says Dr. Michael Pishko, professor of chemical engineering and materials science and engineering. “These implantable sensors are intended to monitor the physiology of t

Robot-assisted prostate surgery has possible benefits, high cost

Although minimally invasive prostate removal aided by a robot can lead to less blood loss, shorter hospital stays and fewer complications, there is no evidence that the procedure improves cure rates, according to a new technology assessment.

In addition, robotic surgery, in high demand among patients, can lose money for hospitals because of its expense and special training required, according to the new review of studies by ECRI.

ECRI is a nonprofit health services res

New imaging technology shown to detect pancreatic inflammation in type 1 diabetes

Non-invasive imaging may help predict type 1 diabetes and response to treatment in humans: Joslin recruiting for new Imaging in Diabetes Clinical Trial

A key obstacle to early detection of type 1 diabetes – as well as to rapid assessment of the effectiveness of therapeutic intervention – has been the lack of direct, non-invasive technologies to visualize inflammation in the pancreas, an early manifestation of disease. Instead, clinicians have had to await overt symptoms before

Hopkins researchers use diffusion MRI technique to monitor ultrasound uterine fibroid treatment

Johns Hopkins researchers have, for what is believed to be the first time, used a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technique called diffusion-weighted MRI (DWI), a technique that images the movement, or diffusion, of water molecules in tissues, to successfully determine the effectiveness of high-intensity focused ultrasound for treating uterine fibroids. Uterine fibroids are noncancerous tumors that line the uterine wall and can cause intense pain and bleeding. The study appears in the July edi

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