Currently frequency analysis of optical signals relies on electrooptical modulators generating variable frequency signals. Subsequently, the response of the component due to the signal is detected and analysed. Therefore, complex calibration of the system is necessary. Additionally, the frequency range is confined to that of the electrooptical modulator.<br><br> <strong>Technology</strong><br> This invention provides a method for determining the frequency response of an electrooptical component, particularly, of a light-generating or light-modulating component. Optical pulses with a pulse frequency are generated. The electrooptical component is controlled by an electrical measuring signal with a measuring frequency in such a manner that an optical output signal is formed that is modulated with the measuring frequency. The measuring frequency is equal to an integral multiple of the pulse frequency plus a predetermined frequency offset. The pulses and the output signal are mixed, and a mixed product is detected whose modulation frequency corresponds to the predetermined frequency offset. The mixed product indicates the frequency response of the electrooptical component at the measuring frequency.<br><br>
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For the first time a team of researchers have discovered two different phases of magnetic skyrmions in a single material. Physicists of the Technical Universities of Munich and Dresden and the University of Cologne can now better study and understand the properties of these magnetic structures, which are important for both basic research and applications.
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Physicists working with Roland Wester at the University of Innsbruck have investigated if and how chemical reactions can be influenced by targeted vibrational excitation of the reactants. They were able to demonstrate that excitation with a laser beam does not affect the efficiency of a chemical exchange reaction and that the excited molecular group acts only as a spectator in the reaction.
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Optical spectroscopy allows investigating the energy structure and dynamic properties of complex quantum systems. Researchers from the University of Würzburg present two new approaches of coherent two-dimensional spectroscopy.
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Ultra-short, high-intensity X-ray flashes open the door to the foundations of chemical reactions. Free-electron lasers generate these kinds of pulses, but there is a catch: the pulses vary in duration and energy. An international research team has now presented a solution: Using a ring of 16 detectors and a circularly polarized laser beam, they can determine both factors with attosecond accuracy.
Free-electron lasers (FELs) generate extremely short and intense X-ray flashes. Researchers can use these flashes to resolve structures with diameters on the...
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