After the Second World War, Finnish psychiatrists felt that soldiers had readapted to civilian society very well. The reason was not that Finnish soldiers were exceptionally strong, but that war psychiatrists put the blame for long-term psychological problems on the soldiers themselves. Thus explains researcher Ville Kivimäki, who is involved in the research project “The War That Follows Peace” funded by the Academy of Finland.
Soldiers very rarely sought compensation for psychological war injuries. According to Kivimäki, this does not indicate the non-existence of the problem: “Refusing to talk about traumatic war experiences is related to a deep-seated culture of shame and very limited resources for veterans to express their traumas. War psychiatry had a profound impact on the creation of this culture. Even though the restrictive and stigmatising aspects of war psychiatry might seem repulsive, it did establish a certain type of reality, defined possibilities for the existence of soldiers and veterans, and created tension between traumatic war experiences and the culturally acceptable forms of expressing them.”
According to Kivimäki, war psychiatrists were not just quacks, but primarily emphasised that soldiers presenting with psychological problems be quickly brought back from the front lines for treatment. Disabled patients were not forcibly returned to the front lines, at least according to official directives. They were given assignments in which they could best serve their country.Psychiatrists sought to treat their patients first with rest and encouraging words.
If this was not enough, and the symptoms seemed to indicate mental weakness in the patient, shock treatment, using cardiazol, electrical current and insulin, would be administered.
In special units, patients were put to work, but they were also treated with abuse and severity. The patients, who were often thought to be faking their symptoms, were ostensibly forced to “flee back to health”.
The objective of Finnish war psychiatry was a male citizen psychologically capable of going to war. The practice of war psychiatry was based on this. The goal was to objectify ambiguous individual psychological symptoms into a medical diagnostic language and establish a psychiatric organisation and therapy to fulfil the national mandate of war psychiatry.
Kivimäki’s research is based on psychiatric articles published on the diagnosis and treatment of soldiers’ psychological injuries during the period 1930–1954.
Niko Rinta | alfa
The competitive edge: Dietary competition played a key role in the evolution of early primates
01.08.2018 | Grand Valley State University
Diversity and education influence India’s population growth
31.07.2018 | International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA)
There are currently great hopes for solid-state batteries. They contain no liquid parts that could leak or catch fire. For this reason, they do not require cooling and are considered to be much safer, more reliable, and longer lasting than traditional lithium-ion batteries. Jülich scientists have now introduced a new concept that allows currents up to ten times greater during charging and discharging than previously described in the literature. The improvement was achieved by a “clever” choice of materials with a focus on consistently good compatibility. All components were made from phosphate compounds, which are well matched both chemically and mechanically.
The low current is considered one of the biggest hurdles in the development of solid-state batteries. It is the reason why the batteries take a relatively long...
New design tool automatically creates nanostructure 3D-print templates for user-given colors
Scientists present work at prestigious SIGGRAPH conference
Most of the objects we see are colored by pigments, but using pigments has disadvantages: such colors can fade, industrial pigments are often toxic, and...
Scientists at the University of California, Los Angeles present new research on a curious cosmic phenomenon known as "whistlers" -- very low frequency packets...
Scientists develop first tool to use machine learning methods to compute flow around interactively designable 3D objects. Tool will be presented at this year’s prestigious SIGGRAPH conference.
When engineers or designers want to test the aerodynamic properties of the newly designed shape of a car, airplane, or other object, they would normally model...
Researchers from TU Graz and their industry partners have unveiled a world first: the prototype of a robot-controlled, high-speed combined charging system (CCS) for electric vehicles that enables series charging of cars in various parking positions.
Global demand for electric vehicles is forecast to rise sharply: by 2025, the number of new vehicle registrations is expected to reach 25 million per year....
17.08.2018 | Event News
08.08.2018 | Event News
27.07.2018 | Event News
20.08.2018 | Information Technology
20.08.2018 | Life Sciences
20.08.2018 | Information Technology