Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

UChicago scientists detect first X-rays from mystery supernovas

24.08.2017

Exploding stars carry a cloak of dense material that puzzles astronomers

Exploding stars lit the way for our understanding of the universe, but researchers are still in the dark about many of their features.


An image showing X-rays detected from the supernova 2012ca (inside the circle). Image has been smoothed and colorized.

Credit: Vikram Dwarkadas/Chandra X-ray Observatory

A team of scientists, including scholars from the University of Chicago, appear to have found the first X-rays coming from type Ia supernovae. Their findings are published online Aug. 23 in the Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society.

Astronomers are fond of type Ia supernovas, created when a white dwarf star in a two-star system undergoes a thermonuclear explosion, because they burn at a specific brightness. This allows scientists to calculate how far away they are from Earth, and thus to map distances in the universe. But a few years ago, scientists began to find type Ia supernovas with a strange optical signature that suggested they carried a very dense cloak of circumstellar material surrounding them.

Such dense material is normally only seen from a different type of supernova called type II, and is created when massive stars start to lose mass. The ejected mass collects around the star; then, when the star collapses, the explosion sends a shockwave hurtling at supersonic speeds into this dense material, producing a shower of X-rays. Thus we regularly see X-rays from type II supernovas, but they have never been seen from type Ia supernovas.

When the UChicago-led team studied the supernova 2012ca, recorded by the Chandra X-ray Observatory, however, they detected X-ray photons coming from the scene.

"Although other type Ia's with circumstellar material were thought to have similarly high densities based on their optical spectra, we have never before detected them with X-rays," said study co-author Vikram Dwarkadas, research associate professor in the Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics.

The amounts of X-rays they found were small--they counted 33 photons in the first observation a year and a half after the supernova exploded, and ten in another about 200 days later--but present.

"This certainly appears to be a Ia supernova with substantial circumstellar material, and it looks as though it's very dense," he said. "What we saw suggests a density about a million times higher what we thought was the maximum around Ia's."

It's thought that white dwarfs don't lose mass before they explode. The usual explanation for the circumstellar material is that it would have come from a companion star in the system, but the amount of mass suggested by this measurement was very large, Dwarkadas said--far larger than one could expect from most companion stars. "Even the most massive stars do not have such high mass-loss rates on a regular basis," he said. "This once again raises the question of how exactly these strange supernovas form."

"If it's truly a Ia, that's a very interesting development because we have no idea why it would have so much circumstellar material around it," he said.

"It is surprising what you can learn from so few photons," said lead author and Caltech graduate student Chris Bochenek; his work on the study formed his undergraduate thesis at UChicago. "With only tens of them, we were able to infer that the dense gas around the supernova is likely clumpy or in a disk."

More studies to look for X-rays, and even radio waves coming off these anomalies, could open a new window to understanding such supernovas and how they form, the authors said.

Media Contact

Louise Lerner
louise@uchicago.edu
773-702-8366

 @UChicago

http://www-news.uchicago.edu 

Louise Lerner | EurekAlert!

More articles from Physics and Astronomy:

nachricht A two-atom quantum duet
12.11.2018 | Institute for Basic Science

nachricht Improving understanding of how the Solar System is formed
12.11.2018 | Goethe-Universität Frankfurt am Main

All articles from Physics and Astronomy >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: A Leap Into Quantum Technology

Faster and secure data communication: This is the goal of a new joint project involving physicists from the University of Würzburg. The German Federal Ministry of Education and Research funds the project with 14.8 million euro.

In our digital world data security and secure communication are becoming more and more important. Quantum communication is a promising approach to achieve...

Im Focus: Research icebreaker Polarstern begins the Antarctic season

What does it look like below the ice shelf of the calved massive iceberg A68?

On Saturday, 10 November 2018, the research icebreaker Polarstern will leave its homeport of Bremerhaven, bound for Cape Town, South Africa.

Im Focus: Penn engineers develop ultrathin, ultralight 'nanocardboard'

When choosing materials to make something, trade-offs need to be made between a host of properties, such as thickness, stiffness and weight. Depending on the application in question, finding just the right balance is the difference between success and failure

Now, a team of Penn Engineers has demonstrated a new material they call "nanocardboard," an ultrathin equivalent of corrugated paper cardboard. A square...

Im Focus: Coping with errors in the quantum age

Physicists at ETH Zurich demonstrate how errors that occur during the manipulation of quantum system can be monitored and corrected on the fly

The field of quantum computation has seen tremendous progress in recent years. Bit by bit, quantum devices start to challenge conventional computers, at least...

Im Focus: Nanorobots propel through the eye

Scientists developed specially coated nanometer-sized vehicles that can be actively moved through dense tissue like the vitreous of the eye. So far, the transport of nano-vehicles has only been demonstrated in model systems or biological fluids, but not in real tissue. The work was published in the journal Science Advances and constitutes one step further towards nanorobots becoming minimally-invasive tools for precisely delivering medicine to where it is needed.

Researchers of the “Micro, Nano and Molecular Systems” Lab at the Max Planck Institute for Intelligent Systems in Stuttgart, together with an international...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

VideoLinks
Industry & Economy
Event News

“3rd Conference on Laser Polishing – LaP 2018” Attracts International Experts and Users

09.11.2018 | Event News

On the brain’s ability to find the right direction

06.11.2018 | Event News

European Space Talks: Weltraumschrott – eine Gefahr für die Gesellschaft?

23.10.2018 | Event News

 
Latest News

In focus: Peptides, the “little brothers and sisters” of proteins

12.11.2018 | Life Sciences

Materials scientist creates fabric alternative to batteries for wearable devices

12.11.2018 | Materials Sciences

A two-atom quantum duet

12.11.2018 | Physics and Astronomy

VideoLinks
Science & Research
Overview of more VideoLinks >>>