Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

UChicago scientists detect first X-rays from mystery supernovas

24.08.2017

Exploding stars carry a cloak of dense material that puzzles astronomers

Exploding stars lit the way for our understanding of the universe, but researchers are still in the dark about many of their features.


An image showing X-rays detected from the supernova 2012ca (inside the circle). Image has been smoothed and colorized.

Credit: Vikram Dwarkadas/Chandra X-ray Observatory

A team of scientists, including scholars from the University of Chicago, appear to have found the first X-rays coming from type Ia supernovae. Their findings are published online Aug. 23 in the Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society.

Astronomers are fond of type Ia supernovas, created when a white dwarf star in a two-star system undergoes a thermonuclear explosion, because they burn at a specific brightness. This allows scientists to calculate how far away they are from Earth, and thus to map distances in the universe. But a few years ago, scientists began to find type Ia supernovas with a strange optical signature that suggested they carried a very dense cloak of circumstellar material surrounding them.

Such dense material is normally only seen from a different type of supernova called type II, and is created when massive stars start to lose mass. The ejected mass collects around the star; then, when the star collapses, the explosion sends a shockwave hurtling at supersonic speeds into this dense material, producing a shower of X-rays. Thus we regularly see X-rays from type II supernovas, but they have never been seen from type Ia supernovas.

When the UChicago-led team studied the supernova 2012ca, recorded by the Chandra X-ray Observatory, however, they detected X-ray photons coming from the scene.

"Although other type Ia's with circumstellar material were thought to have similarly high densities based on their optical spectra, we have never before detected them with X-rays," said study co-author Vikram Dwarkadas, research associate professor in the Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics.

The amounts of X-rays they found were small--they counted 33 photons in the first observation a year and a half after the supernova exploded, and ten in another about 200 days later--but present.

"This certainly appears to be a Ia supernova with substantial circumstellar material, and it looks as though it's very dense," he said. "What we saw suggests a density about a million times higher what we thought was the maximum around Ia's."

It's thought that white dwarfs don't lose mass before they explode. The usual explanation for the circumstellar material is that it would have come from a companion star in the system, but the amount of mass suggested by this measurement was very large, Dwarkadas said--far larger than one could expect from most companion stars. "Even the most massive stars do not have such high mass-loss rates on a regular basis," he said. "This once again raises the question of how exactly these strange supernovas form."

"If it's truly a Ia, that's a very interesting development because we have no idea why it would have so much circumstellar material around it," he said.

"It is surprising what you can learn from so few photons," said lead author and Caltech graduate student Chris Bochenek; his work on the study formed his undergraduate thesis at UChicago. "With only tens of them, we were able to infer that the dense gas around the supernova is likely clumpy or in a disk."

More studies to look for X-rays, and even radio waves coming off these anomalies, could open a new window to understanding such supernovas and how they form, the authors said.

Media Contact

Louise Lerner
louise@uchicago.edu
773-702-8366

 @UChicago

http://www-news.uchicago.edu 

Louise Lerner | EurekAlert!

More articles from Physics and Astronomy:

nachricht Explained: Why water droplets 'bounce off the walls'
27.02.2020 | University of Warwick

nachricht Scientists 'film' a quantum measurement
26.02.2020 | Stockholm University

All articles from Physics and Astronomy >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: High-pressure scientists in Bayreuth discover promising material for information technology

Researchers at the University of Bayreuth have discovered an unusual material: When cooled down to two degrees Celsius, its crystal structure and electronic properties change abruptly and significantly. In this new state, the distances between iron atoms can be tailored with the help of light beams. This opens up intriguing possibilities for application in the field of information technology. The scientists have presented their discovery in the journal "Angewandte Chemie - International Edition". The new findings are the result of close cooperation with partnering facilities in Augsburg, Dresden, Hamburg, and Moscow.

The material is an unusual form of iron oxide with the formula Fe₅O₆. The researchers produced it at a pressure of 15 gigapascals in a high-pressure laboratory...

Im Focus: From China to the South Pole: Joining forces to solve the neutrino mass puzzle

Study by Mainz physicists indicates that the next generation of neutrino experiments may well find the answer to one of the most pressing issues in neutrino physics

Among the most exciting challenges in modern physics is the identification of the neutrino mass ordering. Physicists from the Cluster of Excellence PRISMA+ at...

Im Focus: Therapies without drugs

Fraunhofer researchers are investigating the potential of microimplants to stimulate nerve cells and treat chronic conditions like asthma, diabetes, or Parkinson’s disease. Find out what makes this form of treatment so appealing and which challenges the researchers still have to master.

A study by the Robert Koch Institute has found that one in four women will suffer from weak bladders at some point in their lives. Treatments of this condition...

Im Focus: A step towards controlling spin-dependent petahertz electronics by material defects

The operational speed of semiconductors in various electronic and optoelectronic devices is limited to several gigahertz (a billion oscillations per second). This constrains the upper limit of the operational speed of computing. Now researchers from the Max Planck Institute for the Structure and Dynamics of Matter in Hamburg, Germany, and the Indian Institute of Technology in Bombay have explained how these processes can be sped up through the use of light waves and defected solid materials.

Light waves perform several hundred trillion oscillations per second. Hence, it is natural to envision employing light oscillations to drive the electronic...

Im Focus: Freiburg researcher investigate the origins of surface texture

Most natural and artificial surfaces are rough: metals and even glasses that appear smooth to the naked eye can look like jagged mountain ranges under the microscope. There is currently no uniform theory about the origin of this roughness despite it being observed on all scales, from the atomic to the tectonic. Scientists suspect that the rough surface is formed by irreversible plastic deformation that occurs in many processes of mechanical machining of components such as milling.

Prof. Dr. Lars Pastewka from the Simulation group at the Department of Microsystems Engineering at the University of Freiburg and his team have simulated such...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

VideoLinks
Industry & Economy
Event News

70th Lindau Nobel Laureate Meeting: Around 70 Laureates set to meet with young scientists from approx. 100 countries

12.02.2020 | Event News

11th Advanced Battery Power Conference, March 24-25, 2020 in Münster/Germany

16.01.2020 | Event News

Laser Colloquium Hydrogen LKH2: fast and reliable fuel cell manufacturing

15.01.2020 | Event News

 
Latest News

Bacteria loop-the-loop

27.02.2020 | Life Sciences

Project on microorganisms: Saci, the bio-factory

27.02.2020 | Life Sciences

New method converts carbon dioxide to methane at low temperatures

27.02.2020 | Life Sciences

VideoLinks
Science & Research
Overview of more VideoLinks >>>