Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

The view from inside supersonic combustion

16.03.2018

Designing scramjets with extremely high-speed propulsion just got easier: Numerical simulations show the effects of shockwaves on fluid vortices and detail the complex wave forms and chemical reactions in shocked fuel.

In a jet engine, the flow of air is slowed down to increase the temperature and pressure for combustion -- burning fuel with the right ratio of fuel and air to conquer drag allows for acceleration.


Instantaneous distributions of dimensionless temperature T/T0 and fuel mass fraction, with blue dashed lines given by YF=0.05: (top, Case LP-OS1) weak shock with stoichiometric mixture, (middle, Case LP-OS2) strong shock with stoichiometric mixture, and (bottom, Case LP-OS2-H) strong shock with fuel-rich mixture. Here, the gray dots indicate evaporating fuel droplets.

Credit: Zhaoxin Ren, Bing Wang and Longxi Zheng

Usage Restrictions: This image may be used only with appropriate credit.

But in supersonic engines achieving the right flow speed, producing the right ratio of evaporated fuel and causing ignition at the right time is more complex. With evaporating liquid in a combustion chamber, there is more at play than just gravity and drag, especially with supersonic shock waves in the equation.

Vortices -- the dynamic structures created in a turbulent flow --are affected by the shock wave. This changes the way the fuel combusts and multiplies the number of possibilities of how particles can behave. To deepen our understanding of the dynamics of supersonic flow, researchers look to numerical modeling to calculate the huge variety of possible outcomes in this changed system.

In their study, published this week in Physics of Fluids, by AIP Publishing, Zhaoxin Ren, Bing Wang and Longxi Zheng viewed supersonic combustion in a time series through numerical modeling. This allowed them to see how changing variables, such as mass loading fuel, the intensity of the shock wave, and the types of reflecting and transmitted waves created at different points in time will affect ignition.

They were able to quantitatively characterize the influence of an incident oblique shock wave on large-scale shearing vortices and exothermal reactions, mathematically mapping the influence of variables and the resulting types of waves created in a shocked gas. Their analysis establishes a reliable simulation method for supersonic combustion using mathematical modeling tools specifically designed for this purpose.

"Currently, no commercial software can simulate the supersonic combustion problem because it requires high-order numerical schemes to compute supersonic flows with complicated evolved shocks, as well as corrected models to describe the droplet dynamics, both of which we carefully consider in our in-house simulation codes," Wang said, a co-author of the study. "Direct numerical simulation can capture the full scales of flows involved in the shock-vortex interaction."

Using a combination of custom simulation codes and the Eulerian-Lagrangian method commonly applied to particle-laden two-phase flows, the authors were able to run a broad range of simulations and provide a series of test cases that inform scramjet engine design. Their analysis revealed two induced combustion modes, including a local quasi detonation mode that occurs due to the formation of a refracted wave coupled with the chemical reaction.

"The scramjet engine is the most favorable option for high-speed flight at Mach six or more," Wang said. "Understanding the complicated physical mechanism of supersonic combustion and the impact of incident shock waves could help engineers choose the best combination of mixing and combustion through installing movable components in the combustor."

###

The article, "Numerical analysis on interactions of vortex, shock wave and exothermal reaction in a supersonic planar shear layer laden with droplets," is authored by Zhaoxin Ren, Bing Wang and Longxi Zheng. The article appeared in Physics of Fluids March 13, 2018 (DOI: 10.1063/1.5011708) and can be accessed at https://aip.scitation.org/doi/10.1063/1.5011708.

ABOUT THE JOURNAL

Physics of Fluids is devoted to the publication of original theoretical, computational, and experimental contributions to the dynamics of gases, liquids, and complex or multiphase fluids. See http://pof.aip.org.

Media Contact

Julia Majors
media@aip.org
301-209-3090

 @AIPPhysicsNews

http://www.aip.org 

Julia Majors | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.5011708

More articles from Physics and Astronomy:

nachricht Magnetic tuning at the nanoscale
13.11.2019 | Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf

nachricht At future Mars landing spot, scientists spy mineral that could preserve signs of past life
13.11.2019 | Brown University

All articles from Physics and Astronomy >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: New Pitt research finds carbon nanotubes show a love/hate relationship with water

Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are valuable for a wide variety of applications. Made of graphene sheets rolled into tubes 10,000 times smaller than a human hair, CNTs have an exceptional strength-to-mass ratio and excellent thermal and electrical properties. These features make them ideal for a range of applications, including supercapacitors, interconnects, adhesives, particle trapping and structural color.

New research reveals even more potential for CNTs: as a coating, they can both repel and hold water in place, a useful property for applications like printing,...

Im Focus: Magnets for the second dimension

If you've ever tried to put several really strong, small cube magnets right next to each other on a magnetic board, you'll know that you just can't do it. What happens is that the magnets always arrange themselves in a column sticking out vertically from the magnetic board. Moreover, it's almost impossible to join several rows of these magnets together to form a flat surface. That's because magnets are dipolar. Equal poles repel each other, with the north pole of one magnet always attaching itself to the south pole of another and vice versa. This explains why they form a column with all the magnets aligned the same way.

Now, scientists at ETH Zurich have managed to create magnetic building blocks in the shape of cubes that - for the first time ever - can be joined together to...

Im Focus: A new quantum data classification protocol brings us nearer to a future 'quantum internet'

The algorithm represents a first step in the automated learning of quantum information networks

Quantum-based communication and computation technologies promise unprecedented applications, such as unconditionally secure communications, ultra-precise...

Im Focus: Distorted Atoms

In two experiments performed at the free-electron laser FLASH in Hamburg a cooperation led by physicists from the Heidelberg Max Planck Institute for Nuclear physics (MPIK) demonstrated strongly-driven nonlinear interaction of ultrashort extreme-ultraviolet (XUV) laser pulses with atoms and ions. The powerful excitation of an electron pair in helium was found to compete with the ultrafast decay, which temporarily may even lead to population inversion. Resonant transitions in doubly charged neon ions were shifted in energy, and observed by XUV-XUV pump-probe transient absorption spectroscopy.

An international team led by physicists from the MPIK reports on new results for efficient two-electron excitations in helium driven by strong and ultrashort...

Im Focus: A Memory Effect at Single-Atom Level

An international research group has observed new quantum properties on an artificial giant atom and has now published its results in the high-ranking journal Nature Physics. The quantum system under investigation apparently has a memory - a new finding that could be used to build a quantum computer.

The research group, consisting of German, Swedish and Indian scientists, has investigated an artificial quantum system and found new properties.

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

VideoLinks
Industry & Economy
Event News

High entropy alloys for hot turbines and tireless metal-forming presses

05.11.2019 | Event News

Smart lasers open up new applications and are the “tool of choice” in digitalization

30.10.2019 | Event News

International Symposium on Functional Materials for Electrolysis, Fuel Cells and Metal-Air Batteries

02.10.2019 | Event News

 
Latest News

Necessity is the mother of invention: Fraunhofer WKI tests utilization of low-value hardwood for wood fiberboard

13.11.2019 | Materials Sciences

With Mars methane mystery unsolved, curiosity serves scientists a new one: Oxygen

13.11.2019 | Physics and Astronomy

AI-driven single blood cell classification: New method to support physicians in leukemia diagnostics

13.11.2019 | Life Sciences

VideoLinks
Science & Research
Overview of more VideoLinks >>>