Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Stars 2.0 – From the first generation of stars to the second

22.07.2014

Göttingen scientists model the formation of the oldest known star in the Milky Way

Scientists from the Universities of Göttingen and Copenhagen have modelled the formation of the oldest known star in the Milky Way using high-resolution computer simulations.


Density, temperature, and CII projections along the y-axis at a scale of 1 pc, for three different metallicities.

Photo: University of Göttingen

Using the star’s abundance patterns, the scientists performed cosmological simulations on a supercomputer of the North-German Supercomputing Alliance which included the dynamics of gas and dark matter as well as the chemical evolution.

From this simulation, the scientists expect to obtain an improved understanding of the transition from the first to the second generation of stars in the Universe. The results of their study were published in the Astrophysical Journal Letters.

The stars of the first generation were formed out of a primordial gas which consisted only of hydrogen and helium. Their mass ranged from ten to five hundred times the mass of our Sun. Nuclear processes in the interior of these stars created heavy elements like iron, silicon, carbon, and oxygen.

When the stars died during the first supernova explosions, the heavy elements were ejected and formed the stars of the second generation.

“Our simulations indicate that the gas efficiently cools during the process,” explains the leader of the study, Dr. Stefano Bovino from Göttingen University’s Institute for Astrophysics. “Such conditions favor the formation of low-mass stars.” The presence of heavy elements provides additional mechanisms for the gas to cool. It is therefore very important for the scientists to follow and model their chemical evolution.

The scientists chose the oldest known star of the Milky Way, called SMSS J031300.-36-670839.3 and estimated to be roughly 13.6 billion years old, because its abundance patterns were previously shown to be consistent with one single low-energy supernova.

“It seems very likely that this star is indeed one of the very first stars that formed out of the metal-enriched gas,” says Göttingen University’s Prof. Dr. Dominik Schleicher. “The chemical conditions reflect those right after the first supernova explosion.”

While SMSS J031300.-36-670839.3 has only a tiny amount of heavy elements, it has a relatively higher carbon abundance. It in fact represents an entire class with similar properties, and the scientists expect a very similar formation pathway for the entire class.

The new simulations became feasible through the development of the chemistry package KROME, a joint effort led by the University of Copenhagen. In the future, the scientists plan to explore a wide range of possible conditions to understand the formation of the most metal-poor stars observed in the Milky Way.

Original publication: Stefano Bovino et al. Formation of carbon-enhanced metal-poor stars in the presence of far ultraviolet radiation. 2014 ApJ 790 L35. Doi: 10.1088/2041-8205/790/2/L35.

Contact:
Prof. Dr. Dominik Schleicher
University of Göttingen
Faculty of Physics – Institute for Astrophysics
Friedrich-Hund-Platz 1, 37077 Göttingen, Germany
Phone +49 551 39-5045
Email: dominik.schleicher@phys.uni-goettingen.de

Weitere Informationen:

http://vimeo.com/101191120
http://www.astro.physik.uni-goettingen.de/~dschleic/
http://www.kromepackage.org

Thomas Richter | idw - Informationsdienst Wissenschaft

More articles from Physics and Astronomy:

nachricht When fluid flows almost as fast as light -- with quantum rotation
22.06.2018 | The Henryk Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics Polish Academy of Sciences

nachricht Thermal Radiation from Tiny Particles
22.06.2018 | Universität Greifswald

All articles from Physics and Astronomy >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Temperature-controlled fiber-optic light source with liquid core

In a recent publication in the renowned journal Optica, scientists of Leibniz-Institute of Photonic Technology (Leibniz IPHT) in Jena showed that they can accurately control the optical properties of liquid-core fiber lasers and therefore their spectral band width by temperature and pressure tuning.

Already last year, the researchers provided experimental proof of a new dynamic of hybrid solitons– temporally and spectrally stationary light waves resulting...

Im Focus: Overdosing on Calcium

Nano crystals impact stem cell fate during bone formation

Scientists from the University of Freiburg and the University of Basel identified a master regulator for bone regeneration. Prasad Shastri, Professor of...

Im Focus: AchemAsia 2019 will take place in Shanghai

Moving into its fourth decade, AchemAsia is setting out for new horizons: The International Expo and Innovation Forum for Sustainable Chemical Production will take place from 21-23 May 2019 in Shanghai, China. With an updated event profile, the eleventh edition focusses on topics that are especially relevant for the Chinese process industry, putting a strong emphasis on sustainability and innovation.

Founded in 1989 as a spin-off of ACHEMA to cater to the needs of China’s then developing industry, AchemAsia has since grown into a platform where the latest...

Im Focus: First real-time test of Li-Fi utilization for the industrial Internet of Things

The BMBF-funded OWICELLS project was successfully completed with a final presentation at the BMW plant in Munich. The presentation demonstrated a Li-Fi communication with a mobile robot, while the robot carried out usual production processes (welding, moving and testing parts) in a 5x5m² production cell. The robust, optical wireless transmission is based on spatial diversity; in other words, data is sent and received simultaneously by several LEDs and several photodiodes. The system can transmit data at more than 100 Mbit/s and five milliseconds latency.

Modern production technologies in the automobile industry must become more flexible in order to fulfil individual customer requirements.

Im Focus: Sharp images with flexible fibers

An international team of scientists has discovered a new way to transfer image information through multimodal fibers with almost no distortion - even if the fiber is bent. The results of the study, to which scientist from the Leibniz-Institute of Photonic Technology Jena (Leibniz IPHT) contributed, were published on 6thJune in the highly-cited journal Physical Review Letters.

Endoscopes allow doctors to see into a patient’s body like through a keyhole. Typically, the images are transmitted via a bundle of several hundreds of optical...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

VideoLinks
Industry & Economy
Event News

Munich conference on asteroid detection, tracking and defense

13.06.2018 | Event News

2nd International Baltic Earth Conference in Denmark: “The Baltic Sea region in Transition”

08.06.2018 | Event News

ISEKI_Food 2018: Conference with Holistic View of Food Production

05.06.2018 | Event News

 
Latest News

Graphene assembled film shows higher thermal conductivity than graphite film

22.06.2018 | Materials Sciences

Fast rising bedrock below West Antarctica reveals an extremely fluid Earth mantle

22.06.2018 | Earth Sciences

Zebrafish's near 360 degree UV-vision knocks stripes off Google Street View

22.06.2018 | Life Sciences

VideoLinks
Science & Research
Overview of more VideoLinks >>>