Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:


Slow, but efficient


Low-energy electron emission from intense laser cluster interactions

For the past 30 years intense laser cluster interactions have been seen primarily as a way to generate energetic ions and electrons. In surprising contrast with the hitherto prevailing paradigm, a team of researchers has now found that copious amounts of relatively slow electrons are also produced in intense laser cluster interactions.

Atomistic simulation of the laser-induced cluster explosion.

Bernd Schütte

The electron kinetic energy spectrum from Ar clusters interacting with intense laser pulses is dominated by a low-energy structure (orange area).

Bernd Schütte

These low-energy electrons constitute a previously missing link in the understanding of the processes occurring when an intense laser pulse interacts with a nanoscale particle, a situation that is highly relevant for the in-situ imaging of biomolecules on ultrashort timescales.

When a nanoscale particle is exposed to an intense laser pulse, it transforms into a nanoplasma that expands extremely fast, and several phenomena occur that are both fascinating and important for applications. Examples are the generation of energetic electrons, ions and neutral atoms, the efficient production of X-ray radiation as well as nuclear fusion.

While these observations are comparably well understood, another observation, namely the generation of highly charged ions, has so far posed a riddle to researchers. The reason is that models predicted very efficient recombination of electrons and ions in the nanoplasma, thereby drastically reducing the charges of the ions.

A team of researchers from the Imperial College London, the University of Rostock, the Max Born Institute, the University of Heidelberg and ELI-ALPS have now helped to solve this riddle. Tiny clusters consisting of a few thousand atoms were exposed to ultrashort, intense laser pulses.

The researchers found that the vast majority of the emitted electrons were very slow (see Fig. 1). Moreover, it turned out that these low-energy electrons were emitted with a delay compared to the energetic electrons.

Lead scientist Dr. Bernd Schütte, who performed the experiments at Imperial College in the framework of a research fellowship and who now works at the Max Born Institute, says: "Many factors including the Earth's magnetic field influence the movement of slow electrons, making their detection very difficult and explaining why they have not been observed earlier. Our observations were independent from the specific cluster and laser parameters used, and they help us to understand the complex processes evolving on the nanoscale."

In order to understand the experimental observations, researchers around Professor Thomas Fennel from the University of Rostock and the Max Born Institute simulated the interaction of the intense laser pulse with the cluster. "Our atomistic simulations showed that the slow electrons result from a two-step process, where the second step relies on a final kick that has so far escaped the researchers' attention", explains Fennel.

First, the intense laser pulse detaches electrons from individual atoms. These electrons remain trapped in the cluster as they are strongly attracted by the ions. When this attraction diminishes as the particles move farther away from each other during cluster expansion, the scene is set for the important second step.

Therein, weakly bound electrons collide with a highly excited ion and thus get a final kick that allows them to escape from the cluster. As such correlated processes are quite difficult to model, the computing resources from the North-German Supercomputing Alliance (HLRN) were essential to solve the puzzle.

The researchers found the emission of slow electrons to be a very efficient process, enabling a large number of slow electrons to escape from the cluster. As a consequence, it becomes much harder for highly charged ions to find partner electrons that they can recombine with, and many of them indeed remain in high charge states. The discovery of the so-called low-energy electron structure can thus help to explain the observation of highly charged ions from intense laser cluster interactions. These findings might be important as low-energy electrons are implicated as playing a major role in radiation damage of biomolecules - of which the clusters are a model.

Senior author Professor Jon Marangos, from the Department of Physics at Imperial, says: "Since the mid-1990's we have worked on the energetic emission of particles (electrons and highly charged ions) from laser-irradiated atomic clusters. What is surprising is that until now the much lower energy delayed electron emission has been overlooked. It turns out that this is a very strong feature, accounting for the majority of emitted electrons. As such, it may play a big role when condensed matter or large molecules of any kind interact with a high intensity laser pulse."

Fig. 1: The electron kinetic energy spectrum from Ar clusters interacting with intense laser pulses is dominated by a low-energy structure (orange area). The inset shows the same spectrum on a logarithmic scale, indicating an exponential behavior both for the slow electron emission (red curve) and for the fast electron emission (green curve).
Phase Image

Wissenschaftliche Ansprechpartner:

Dr. Bernd Schütte, Tel.: 030 6392 1295
Prof. Dr. Thomas Fennel , Tel.: 030 6392 1245


Original publication:
Bernd Schütte, Christian Peltz, Dane R. Austin, Christian Strüber, Peng Ye, Arnaud Rouzée, Marc J. J. Vrakking, Nikolay Golubev, Alexander I. Kuleff, Thomas Fennel and Jon P. Marangos
"Low-energy electron emission in the strong-field ionization of rare gas clusters"
Physical Review Letters 0031-9007/18/121(6)/063202(6)/ DOI:10.1103/PhysRevLett.121.063202

Saskia Donath | Forschungsverbund Berlin e.V.

More articles from Physics and Astronomy:

nachricht Double layer of graphene helps to control spin currents
18.10.2019 | University of Groningen

nachricht Analysis of Galileo's Jupiter entry probe reveals gaps in heat shield modeling
17.10.2019 | American Institute of Physics

All articles from Physics and Astronomy >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Solving the mystery of quantum light in thin layers

A very special kind of light is emitted by tungsten diselenide layers. The reason for this has been unclear. Now an explanation has been found at TU Wien (Vienna)

It is an exotic phenomenon that nobody was able to explain for years: when energy is supplied to a thin layer of the material tungsten diselenide, it begins to...

Im Focus: An ultrafast glimpse of the photochemistry of the atmosphere

Researchers at Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet (LMU) in Munich have explored the initial consequences of the interaction of light with molecules on the surface of nanoscopic aerosols.

The nanocosmos is constantly in motion. All natural processes are ultimately determined by the interplay between radiation and matter. Light strikes particles...

Im Focus: Shaping nanoparticles for improved quantum information technology

Particles that are mere nanometers in size are at the forefront of scientific research today. They come in many different shapes: rods, spheres, cubes, vesicles, S-shaped worms and even donut-like rings. What makes them worthy of scientific study is that, being so tiny, they exhibit quantum mechanical properties not possible with larger objects.

Researchers at the Center for Nanoscale Materials (CNM), a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science User Facility located at DOE's Argonne National...

Im Focus: Novel Material for Shipbuilding

A new research project at the TH Mittelhessen focusses on the development of a novel light weight design concept for leisure boats and yachts. Professor Stephan Marzi from the THM Institute of Mechanics and Materials collaborates with Krake Catamarane, which is a shipyard located in Apolda, Thuringia.

The project is set up in an international cooperation with Professor Anders Biel from Karlstad University in Sweden and the Swedish company Lamera from...

Im Focus: Controlling superconducting regions within an exotic metal

Superconductivity has fascinated scientists for many years since it offers the potential to revolutionize current technologies. Materials only become superconductors - meaning that electrons can travel in them with no resistance - at very low temperatures. These days, this unique zero resistance superconductivity is commonly found in a number of technologies, such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).

Future technologies, however, will harness the total synchrony of electronic behavior in superconductors - a property called the phase. There is currently a...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>



Industry & Economy
Event News

International Symposium on Functional Materials for Electrolysis, Fuel Cells and Metal-Air Batteries

02.10.2019 | Event News

NEXUS 2020: Relationships Between Architecture and Mathematics

02.10.2019 | Event News

Optical Technologies: International Symposium „Future Optics“ in Hannover

19.09.2019 | Event News

Latest News

Energy Flow in the Nano Range

18.10.2019 | Power and Electrical Engineering

MR-compatible Ultrasound System for the Therapeutic Application of Ultrasound

18.10.2019 | Medical Engineering

Double layer of graphene helps to control spin currents

18.10.2019 | Physics and Astronomy

Science & Research
Overview of more VideoLinks >>>