Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Towards a Unified Description of Dark Energy and Dark Matter

04.04.2007
In the past decade, cosmology has entered an era of high precision, and in the future it may become a unique laboratory to test theories of fundamental physics, from gravitation laws to microphysics. Amongst the many questions raised by this science in turmoil, one of the most important is indisputably the one of the energy content of the Universe.

Knowing what the Universe is precisely made of, and in which proportions, allows not only to determine its age but also to reconstruct the history, to predict its past and future. In fact in the attempt to solve this question cosmologists have made two of the most promising discoveries in the history of modern physics: the existence of dark matter and dark energy.

While dark matter is unavoidable to explain at the same time the angular fluctuations of the cosmic microwave background and the formation and the properties of galaxies, dark energy has been originally invoked to account for the observed recent acceleration of the cosmic expansion. The so-called concordance model of cosmology assumes that this dark energy is in fact the cosmological constant once introduced by Einstein himself as an attempt to incorporate Mach’s principle within general relativity. However, the usual interpretation of the cosmological constant in terms of quantum vacuum fluctuations is in disagreement with observed value by a few dozens orders of magnitude! Furthermore, as the vacuum energy is assumed constant everywhere at all times, it is hard to explain how it became dominant only a few billion years ago. This would mean that we live in a very particular, and even privileged, epoch of cosmic history… Is this an extraordinary coincidence? Yet this anthropic consideration is quite deceiving for scientists.

To overcome these difficulties, the authors, Jean-Michel Alimi and André Füzfa, have proposed the AWE Hypothesis (« Abnormally Weighting Energy ») in which the dark sector of cosmic matter violates the equivalence principle on cosmological scales. This principle, as well introduced by Einstein, assumes that all kinds of energies produce and undergo the same form of gravity. This principle is extremely well tested (to a part out of a thousand billion) in laboratories, i.e. at local scales, in contrast what would happen if violation of the equivalence principle would be scale-dependant. In other words, what would happen if the equivalence principle was rigorously verified at local scales, where dark matter and dark energy are present in tiny amount, but is violated on cosmological scales where dark matter and dark energy are dominant? The authors have precisely shown that this could naturally happen if some particles, those of dark matter for instance, do not couple to gravitation in the same way as ordinary matter. These particles would therefore see gravitational fields with a gravitational strength different from ordinary matter. The authors have answered these questions by showing how at a given scale the gravitational strength becomes dependent on dark matter concentration…

If the amount of dark matter at sub-galactic scales is negligible, so is the amplitude of this effect. This is not the case on cosmological scales where dark matter dominates the energy content of the Universe. The team has shown that over such cosmic distances, ordinary matter has experienced a stronger cosmic expansion, as its own gravitational coupling strength has been adapting to the dark matter domination. This change in the matter gravitational coupling results in an accelerating cosmic expansion until equilibrium is reached such that the gravitational coupling on cosmological scales stabilizes at a value which differs from the one measured in our Solar system. The resulting dark energy mechanism exhibits key features which appear very promising. (i) First, it does not require the existence of negative pressures such as in the case of the cosmological constant or other proposed models like quintessence. (ii) It allows explaining naturally the cosmic coincidence as result of the stabilization mechanism of the gravitational constant during the matter-dominated era. (iii) It fairly accounts for the Hubble diagram of type Ia supernovae by predicting independently the amount of ordinary matter and dark matter as obtained by the detailed analysis of cosmic microwave background anisotropies. This suggests an explanation to the remarkable adequacy of the concordance model while predicting an age of the Universe which is compatible with existing observations. Finally, (iv) in the future this mechanism leads to a decelerated cosmic expansion described by the well-known Einstein-de Sitter cosmological model. Most important is the AWE hypothesis allows reducing dark energy as a new property of gravitation: the anomalous gravity of dark matter.

Jean-Michel Alimi | alfa
Further information:
http://www.obspm.fr/actual/nouvelle/mar07/awe.en.shtml

More articles from Physics and Astronomy:

nachricht Researchers discover link between magnetic field strength and temperature
21.08.2018 | American Institute of Physics

nachricht Smallest transistor worldwide switches current with a single atom in solid electrolyte
17.08.2018 | Karlsruher Institut für Technologie (KIT)

All articles from Physics and Astronomy >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: It’s All in the Mix: Jülich Researchers are Developing Fast-Charging Solid-State Batteries

There are currently great hopes for solid-state batteries. They contain no liquid parts that could leak or catch fire. For this reason, they do not require cooling and are considered to be much safer, more reliable, and longer lasting than traditional lithium-ion batteries. Jülich scientists have now introduced a new concept that allows currents up to ten times greater during charging and discharging than previously described in the literature. The improvement was achieved by a “clever” choice of materials with a focus on consistently good compatibility. All components were made from phosphate compounds, which are well matched both chemically and mechanically.

The low current is considered one of the biggest hurdles in the development of solid-state batteries. It is the reason why the batteries take a relatively long...

Im Focus: Color effects from transparent 3D-printed nanostructures

New design tool automatically creates nanostructure 3D-print templates for user-given colors
Scientists present work at prestigious SIGGRAPH conference

Most of the objects we see are colored by pigments, but using pigments has disadvantages: such colors can fade, industrial pigments are often toxic, and...

Im Focus: Unraveling the nature of 'whistlers' from space in the lab

A new study sheds light on how ultralow frequency radio waves and plasmas interact

Scientists at the University of California, Los Angeles present new research on a curious cosmic phenomenon known as "whistlers" -- very low frequency packets...

Im Focus: New interactive machine learning tool makes car designs more aerodynamic

Scientists develop first tool to use machine learning methods to compute flow around interactively designable 3D objects. Tool will be presented at this year’s prestigious SIGGRAPH conference.

When engineers or designers want to test the aerodynamic properties of the newly designed shape of a car, airplane, or other object, they would normally model...

Im Focus: Robots as 'pump attendants': TU Graz develops robot-controlled rapid charging system for e-vehicles

Researchers from TU Graz and their industry partners have unveiled a world first: the prototype of a robot-controlled, high-speed combined charging system (CCS) for electric vehicles that enables series charging of cars in various parking positions.

Global demand for electric vehicles is forecast to rise sharply: by 2025, the number of new vehicle registrations is expected to reach 25 million per year....

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

VideoLinks
Industry & Economy
Event News

LaserForum 2018 deals with 3D production of components

17.08.2018 | Event News

Within reach of the Universe

08.08.2018 | Event News

A journey through the history of microscopy – new exhibition opens at the MDC

27.07.2018 | Event News

 
Latest News

Air pollution leads to cardiovascular diseases

21.08.2018 | Ecology, The Environment and Conservation

Researchers target protein that protects bacteria's DNA 'recipes'

21.08.2018 | Life Sciences

A paper battery powered by bacteria

21.08.2018 | Power and Electrical Engineering

VideoLinks
Science & Research
Overview of more VideoLinks >>>