Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Ultracold test produces long-sought quantum mix

23.12.2005


Unbalanced superfluid could be akin to exotic matter found in quark star


This is a 3-dimensional projection of an image of a phase separated atomic cloud. The tall central (semi-transparent) region consists of paired fermionic 6 Li atoms, and is believed to be a superfluid. The shorter (opaque) peaks on either side, as well as the faint ring around the bottom, are unpaired atoms which have been expelled from the paired central region. The light in the background is a representation of the probe laser beam used to image this cloud.



In the bizarre and rule-bound world of quantum physics, every tiny spec of matter has something called "spin" - an intrinsic trait like eye color - that cannot be changed and which dictates, very specifically, what other bits of matter the spec can share quantum space with. When fermions, the most antisocial type of quantum particle, do get together, they pair up in a wondrous dance that enables such things as superconductivity.

For the first time, researchers at Rice University have succeeded in creating and observing an elusive and long-sought quantum state - a superfluid of fermions with mismatched numbers of dance partners. Despite more than 40 years of theoretical musings about what would occur in such a case, the result - a cluster of matched pairs surrounded by a cloud of would-be dance partners - was largely unexpected.


The research, which appears online this week, is slated to appear in an upcoming issue of the journal Science, together with a paper from MIT reporting related results. The experiments offer physicists a new window into two of the least understood and most intriguing phenomena in physics - superconductivity and superfluidity.

Both phenomena result from a change in the phase of matter. Anyone who has seen ice melt has seen matter change phases, and when electrons, atoms and other specs of matter change quantum phases, they behave just as differently as do ice and water in a glass.

Superconducting and superfluid phases of matter occur in fermions - the antisocial particles that can’t share quantum space - only when quantum forces become dominant. Because thermodynamic forces are typically so powerful that they overwhelm quantum interactions - like loud music overwhelms the whisper of someone nearby - superconductivity and superfluidity only occur in extreme cold.

In the Rice experiment, when temperatures drop to within a few billionths of a degree of absolute zero, fermions with equal but opposite spin become attracted to one another and behave, in some respects, like one particle. Like a couple on the dance floor, they don’t technically share space, but they move in unison. In superconductors, these dancing pairs allow electrical current to flow through the material without any resistance at all, a property that engineers have long dreamed of harnessing to eliminate "leakage" in power cables, something that costs billions of dollars per year in the U.S. alone.

The superconducting and superfluid phases are analogous except that superconductivity happens with particles carrying an electrical charge and superfluidity occurs in electrically neutral particles. In superfluids, fermionic pairing leads to a complete absence of viscosity - like a wave rippling back and forth in a swimming pool without ever diminishing.

"Conventional theory tells us superconductivity or superfluidity occurs only in the presence of an equal number of spin-up and spin-down particles," said lead researcher Randy Hulet, the Fayez Sarofim Professor of Physics and Astronomy. "Physicists have speculated for almost 50 years about what would happen if this condition were not met.

"Because of the pristine and controlled nature of our ultracold atoms, we’re able to offer definitive evidence of what happens with mismatched numbers of spin-up and spin-down particles."

Ultracold experiments at temperatures just a few billionths of a degree above absolute zero are Hulet’s specialty. It’s only been technically possible to chill atoms to these temperatures for the past 10 years, but in that time, this ability has proved remarkably useful for testing the predictions of quantum mechanics and for exploring the properties of what physicists call "many-body phenomena," including superconductivity and superfluidity.

In the latest experiments, Hulet’s team - which includes graduate students Guthrie Partridge, Ramsey Kamar and Yean-an Liao and postdoctoral researcher Wenhui Li - cooled a mixture of fermionic lithium-6 atoms to about 30-billionths of a degree above absolute zero. That’s far colder than any temperature in nature - even in deepest interstellar space - and it’s sufficient to quell virtually all thermodynamic interaction in the atoms, leaving them subject to superfluid quantum pairing.

Using radio waves, Hulet’s team altered the ratio of spin-up and spin-down atoms in the cooled atoms with great precision. They found that the superfluid was able to tolerate an excess of up to 10 percent unpaired fermions with no detrimental effects.

Hulet’s team found that increasing the ratio of spin-up to spin-down atoms eventually caused a phase change. When unpaired spin-up atoms rose above 10 percent of the total sample, the unpaired loners were suddenly expelled, leaving a core of superfluid pairs surrounded by a shell of excess spin-up atoms.

It is the unbalanced yet seemingly unaffected superfluid, however, that is capturing most of the scientific attention at the moment.

"The gas behaves as if it is still perfectly paired, which is quite remarkable given the excess of spin-up atoms," Hulet said. "This was unexpected, and it could signal a new, exotic form of superfluidity that may be akin to the electron pairings in unconventional superconductors or to the quark soup that’s predicted to exist at the heart of the densest neutron stars."

In the largest neutron stars - known as "quark stars" - a mass about five times greater than the sun is pressed into a space smaller than the island of Manhattan. Some physics theorists believe gravity is so strong at the heart of these stars that it creates something called a "strange matter," a dense superfluid of up quarks, down quarks and strange quarks.

B.J. Almond | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.rice.edu

More articles from Physics and Astronomy:

nachricht When fluid flows almost as fast as light -- with quantum rotation
22.06.2018 | The Henryk Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics Polish Academy of Sciences

nachricht Thermal Radiation from Tiny Particles
22.06.2018 | Universität Greifswald

All articles from Physics and Astronomy >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Temperature-controlled fiber-optic light source with liquid core

In a recent publication in the renowned journal Optica, scientists of Leibniz-Institute of Photonic Technology (Leibniz IPHT) in Jena showed that they can accurately control the optical properties of liquid-core fiber lasers and therefore their spectral band width by temperature and pressure tuning.

Already last year, the researchers provided experimental proof of a new dynamic of hybrid solitons– temporally and spectrally stationary light waves resulting...

Im Focus: Overdosing on Calcium

Nano crystals impact stem cell fate during bone formation

Scientists from the University of Freiburg and the University of Basel identified a master regulator for bone regeneration. Prasad Shastri, Professor of...

Im Focus: AchemAsia 2019 will take place in Shanghai

Moving into its fourth decade, AchemAsia is setting out for new horizons: The International Expo and Innovation Forum for Sustainable Chemical Production will take place from 21-23 May 2019 in Shanghai, China. With an updated event profile, the eleventh edition focusses on topics that are especially relevant for the Chinese process industry, putting a strong emphasis on sustainability and innovation.

Founded in 1989 as a spin-off of ACHEMA to cater to the needs of China’s then developing industry, AchemAsia has since grown into a platform where the latest...

Im Focus: First real-time test of Li-Fi utilization for the industrial Internet of Things

The BMBF-funded OWICELLS project was successfully completed with a final presentation at the BMW plant in Munich. The presentation demonstrated a Li-Fi communication with a mobile robot, while the robot carried out usual production processes (welding, moving and testing parts) in a 5x5m² production cell. The robust, optical wireless transmission is based on spatial diversity; in other words, data is sent and received simultaneously by several LEDs and several photodiodes. The system can transmit data at more than 100 Mbit/s and five milliseconds latency.

Modern production technologies in the automobile industry must become more flexible in order to fulfil individual customer requirements.

Im Focus: Sharp images with flexible fibers

An international team of scientists has discovered a new way to transfer image information through multimodal fibers with almost no distortion - even if the fiber is bent. The results of the study, to which scientist from the Leibniz-Institute of Photonic Technology Jena (Leibniz IPHT) contributed, were published on 6thJune in the highly-cited journal Physical Review Letters.

Endoscopes allow doctors to see into a patient’s body like through a keyhole. Typically, the images are transmitted via a bundle of several hundreds of optical...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

VideoLinks
Industry & Economy
Event News

Munich conference on asteroid detection, tracking and defense

13.06.2018 | Event News

2nd International Baltic Earth Conference in Denmark: “The Baltic Sea region in Transition”

08.06.2018 | Event News

ISEKI_Food 2018: Conference with Holistic View of Food Production

05.06.2018 | Event News

 
Latest News

Graphene assembled film shows higher thermal conductivity than graphite film

22.06.2018 | Materials Sciences

Fast rising bedrock below West Antarctica reveals an extremely fluid Earth mantle

22.06.2018 | Earth Sciences

Zebrafish's near 360 degree UV-vision knocks stripes off Google Street View

22.06.2018 | Life Sciences

VideoLinks
Science & Research
Overview of more VideoLinks >>>