Artist’s impression of the MESSENGER spacecraft in orbit around Mercury.
The first spacecraft intended to orbit Mercury was launched on Aug. 3, 2004, carrying an instrument for mapping the composition of the planet’s crust that was calibrated with a novel procedure at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). The procedure, using NIST-produced, high-energy gamma rays, enabled the device to be prepared for the same intense radiation levels typically produced in outer space.
Mercury is a rocky planet like the Earth but smaller, denser and with an older surface. Scientists believe that by studying Mercury they can develop a better understanding of how the Earth formed, evolved and interacts with the Sun.
Scheduled to orbit Mercury in 2011, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration’s (NASA) MESSENGER (MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging) spacecraft carries seven scientific instruments, including a detector that will measure gamma rays emitted by Mercury’s crust as it is bombarded by cosmic rays. The bombardment releases neutrons, which react with the elements in the crust; analysis of the resulting gamma rays will help identify the elements. The detector’s efficiency (the fraction of incoming gamma rays detected) needed to be calibrated based on the gamma-ray energy for 37 different orientation angles associated with the orbits around the planet. Typical gamma ray sources, such as those used for medical treatments, emit at lower energy levels than those needed for the calibration.
Laura Ost | EurekAlert!
Argonne and CERN weigh in on the origin of heavy elements
31.03.2020 | DOE/Argonne National Laboratory
Physicist from Hannover Develops New Photon Source for Tap-proof Communication
30.03.2020 | Leibniz Universität Hannover
An international team with the participation of Prof. Dr. Michael Kues from the Cluster of Excellence PhoenixD at Leibniz University Hannover has developed a new method for generating quantum-entangled photons in a spectral range of light that was previously inaccessible. The discovery can make the encryption of satellite-based communications much more secure in the future.
A 15-member research team from the UK, Germany and Japan has developed a new method for generating and detecting quantum-entangled photons at a wavelength of...
Together with their colleagues from the University of Würzburg, physicists from the group of Professor Alexander Szameit at the University of Rostock have devised a “funnel” for photons. Their discovery was recently published in the renowned journal Science and holds great promise for novel ultra-sensitive detectors as well as innovative applications in telecommunications and information processing.
The quantum-optical properties of light and its interaction with matter has fascinated the Rostock professor Alexander Szameit since College.
Researchers at the University of Zurich show that different stem cell populations are innervated in distinct ways. Innervation may therefore be crucial for proper tissue regeneration. They also demonstrate that cancer stem cells likewise establish contacts with nerves. Targeting tumour innervation could thus lead to new cancer therapies.
Stem cells can generate a variety of specific tissues and are increasingly used for clinical applications such as the replacement of bone or cartilage....
An international research team led by Kiel University develops an extremely porous material made of "white graphene" for new laser light applications
With a porosity of 99.99 %, it consists practically only of air, making it one of the lightest materials in the world: Aerobornitride is the name of the...
Researchers at Graz University of Technology have developed a framework by which wireless devices with different radio technologies will be able to communicate directly with each other.
Whether networked vehicles that warn of traffic jams in real time, household appliances that can be operated remotely, "wearables" that monitor physical...
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03.03.2020 | Event News
31.03.2020 | Life Sciences
31.03.2020 | Life Sciences
31.03.2020 | Medical Engineering