Artist’s impression of the MESSENGER spacecraft in orbit around Mercury.
The first spacecraft intended to orbit Mercury was launched on Aug. 3, 2004, carrying an instrument for mapping the composition of the planet’s crust that was calibrated with a novel procedure at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). The procedure, using NIST-produced, high-energy gamma rays, enabled the device to be prepared for the same intense radiation levels typically produced in outer space.
Mercury is a rocky planet like the Earth but smaller, denser and with an older surface. Scientists believe that by studying Mercury they can develop a better understanding of how the Earth formed, evolved and interacts with the Sun.
Scheduled to orbit Mercury in 2011, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration’s (NASA) MESSENGER (MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging) spacecraft carries seven scientific instruments, including a detector that will measure gamma rays emitted by Mercury’s crust as it is bombarded by cosmic rays. The bombardment releases neutrons, which react with the elements in the crust; analysis of the resulting gamma rays will help identify the elements. The detector’s efficiency (the fraction of incoming gamma rays detected) needed to be calibrated based on the gamma-ray energy for 37 different orientation angles associated with the orbits around the planet. Typical gamma ray sources, such as those used for medical treatments, emit at lower energy levels than those needed for the calibration.
Laura Ost | EurekAlert!
Studying electrons, bridging two realms of physics: connecting solids and soft matter
18.02.2020 | Tokyo University of Science
Broadband transmission-type coding metasurface for electromagnetic beam forming and scanning
17.02.2020 | Science China Press
Most natural and artificial surfaces are rough: metals and even glasses that appear smooth to the naked eye can look like jagged mountain ranges under the microscope. There is currently no uniform theory about the origin of this roughness despite it being observed on all scales, from the atomic to the tectonic. Scientists suspect that the rough surface is formed by irreversible plastic deformation that occurs in many processes of mechanical machining of components such as milling.
Prof. Dr. Lars Pastewka from the Simulation group at the Department of Microsystems Engineering at the University of Freiburg and his team have simulated such...
Investigation of the temperature dependence of the skyrmion Hall effect reveals further insights into possible new data storage devices
The joint research project of Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz (JGU) and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) that had previously demonstrated...
Researchers at Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden, recently completed a 5-year research project looking at how to make fibre optic communications systems more energy efficient. Among their proposals are smart, error-correcting data chip circuits, which they refined to be 10 times less energy consumptive. The project has yielded several scientific articles, in publications including Nature Communications.
Streaming films and music, scrolling through social media, and using cloud-based storage services are everyday activities now.
After helping develop a new approach for organic synthesis -- carbon-hydrogen functionalization -- scientists at Emory University are now showing how this approach may apply to drug discovery. Nature Catalysis published their most recent work -- a streamlined process for making a three-dimensional scaffold of keen interest to the pharmaceutical industry.
"Our tools open up whole new chemical space for potential drug targets," says Huw Davies, Emory professor of organic chemistry and senior author of the paper.
Superconductivity approaching room temperature may be possible in hydrogen-rich compounds at much lower pressures than previously expected
Reaching room-temperature superconductivity is one of the biggest dreams in physics. Its discovery would bring a technological revolution by providing...
12.02.2020 | Event News
16.01.2020 | Event News
15.01.2020 | Event News
18.02.2020 | Power and Electrical Engineering
18.02.2020 | Information Technology
18.02.2020 | Physics and Astronomy