Our planet is bombarded every second with a large number of chargeless, seemingly massless, particles that originate in nuclear fusion reactions that power the sun. Theyre called neutrinos.
According to The Standard Solar Model – the most substantiated model of the sun – the sun should emit around three times more neutrinos than are actually measured on Earth. They are a source of great interest for scientists who seek to better understand elementary particles and the physics of the sun. Indeed, one of the recipients of this years Nobel Prize in Physics was Raymond Davis, who first drew attention to the neutrino shortfall.
Three major research efforts (carried out by the underground large detector complexes at Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO) in Canada, the U.S. National Underground Science Laboratory at Homestake and the Super-Kamikande in Japan ) have measured the number of neutrinos that actually reach Earth as a result of a specific reaction in the sun (thus the experiments are sensitive to only a small fraction of the solar neutrino spectrum). To better understand the shortfall of neutrinos on Earth, scientists have been trying to determine precisely how many neutrinos are emitted as a result of this reaction in the lab, so as to compare them with the number that actually reach Earth as measured by SNO, Kamiokande and Homestake.
Alex Smith | EurekAlert!
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Researchers at the University of Bayreuth have discovered an unusual material: When cooled down to two degrees Celsius, its crystal structure and electronic properties change abruptly and significantly. In this new state, the distances between iron atoms can be tailored with the help of light beams. This opens up intriguing possibilities for application in the field of information technology. The scientists have presented their discovery in the journal "Angewandte Chemie - International Edition". The new findings are the result of close cooperation with partnering facilities in Augsburg, Dresden, Hamburg, and Moscow.
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The operational speed of semiconductors in various electronic and optoelectronic devices is limited to several gigahertz (a billion oscillations per second). This constrains the upper limit of the operational speed of computing. Now researchers from the Max Planck Institute for the Structure and Dynamics of Matter in Hamburg, Germany, and the Indian Institute of Technology in Bombay have explained how these processes can be sped up through the use of light waves and defected solid materials.
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Most natural and artificial surfaces are rough: metals and even glasses that appear smooth to the naked eye can look like jagged mountain ranges under the microscope. There is currently no uniform theory about the origin of this roughness despite it being observed on all scales, from the atomic to the tectonic. Scientists suspect that the rough surface is formed by irreversible plastic deformation that occurs in many processes of mechanical machining of components such as milling.
Prof. Dr. Lars Pastewka from the Simulation group at the Department of Microsystems Engineering at the University of Freiburg and his team have simulated such...
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