Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Butterflies and photonic chrystals

28.01.2003


The small structures in the scanning electron microscope image of a butterfly wing scale (a) are natural photonic crystals that give the wings of some butterflies their brilliant iridescent blue colors. The structures in the second image (b) are responsible for a blue-violet iridescence. In the third image (c), the small structures are almost entirely absent, and the butterfly wing scales are a dull brown shade. New research suggests that photonic crystals keep butterfly wings cooler, as well as making them beautiful. In higher elevations where butterflies are more reliant on sunlight to keep them warm, some of the insects have evolved wing scales in which the photonic crystals have been disrupted (as in image c), improving the chances that they survive long enough to mate despite the frigid climate.
Source: L. P. Biro et al., Physical Review E, February 2003



In recent years, scientists have discovered that the iridescence of various colorful creatures, from beetles to birds to butterflies, is often due to microscopic structures known as photonic crystals. Unlike pigments, which absorb or reflect certain frequencies of light as a result of their chemical composition, the way that photonic crystals reflect light is a function of their physical structure. That is, a material containing a periodic array of holes or bumps of a certain size may reflect blue light, for example, and absorb other colors even though the crystal material itself is entirely colorless. Because a crystal array looks slightly different from different angles (unlike pigments, which are the same from any angle), photonic crystals can lead to shifting shades of iridescent color that may help some animals attract mates or establish territories.

A collaboration of researchers from Hungary and Belgium (Jean-Pol Vigneron, Universitaires Notre-Dame de la Paix, Brussels, jean-pol.vigneron@fundp.ac.be, 011+32-81 724711) may have discovered why the males in certain populations of lycaenid butterflies carry the striking, photonic crystal coloration, and males in other lycaenid populations do not. The researchers examined butterfly scales through high-resolution scanning electron microscopes (see image), and confirmed that indeed the colorful butterflies’ scales included arrays of submicron-sized holes that formed natural photonic crystals. Their closely related brethren from higher elevations did not have the hole arrays in their scales, and their wings were dull brown rather than iridescent blue. The difference, it seems, may be due to a question of survival. The researchers found that the plain brown butterfly wings warmed much more than the iridescent blue wings when each were exposed to identical illumination. The researchers believe that the butterflies at high elevations trade flashy iridescence for light-absorbing brown so that they can withstand colder temperatures, and survive long enough to mate.

If photonic crystals can have such a dramatic impact on butterfly thermal management, suggest the researchers, manmade photonic crystals may someday provide flexible thermal protection in extreme environments, possibly being incorporated into such things as space suits or desert garments. (L. P. Biro et al, Physical Review E, February 2003; text www.aip.org/physnews/select )

Phil Shewe | Bulletin of Physics News

More articles from Physics and Astronomy:

nachricht It’s closeness that counts: how proximity affects the resistance of graphene
28.01.2020 | Georg-August-Universität Göttingen

nachricht Quantum physics: On the way to quantum networks
27.01.2020 | Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München

All articles from Physics and Astronomy >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Integrate Micro Chips for electronic Skin

Researchers from Dresden and Osaka present the first fully integrated flexible electronics made of magnetic sensors and organic circuits which opens the path towards the development of electronic skin.

Human skin is a fascinating and multifunctional organ with unique properties originating from its flexible and compliant nature. It allows for interfacing with...

Im Focus: Dresden researchers discover resistance mechanism in aggressive cancer

Protease blocks guardian function against uncontrolled cell division

Researchers of the Carl Gustav Carus University Hospital Dresden at the National Center for Tumor Diseases Dresden (NCT/UCC), together with an international...

Im Focus: New roles found for Huntington's disease protein

Crucial role in synapse formation could be new avenue toward treatment

A Duke University research team has identified a new function of a gene called huntingtin, a mutation of which underlies the progressive neurodegenerative...

Im Focus: A new look at 'strange metals'

For years, a new synthesis method has been developed at TU Wien (Vienna) to unlock the secrets of "strange metals". Now a breakthrough has been achieved. The results have been published in "Science".

Superconductors allow electrical current to flow without any resistance - but only below a certain critical temperature. Many materials have to be cooled down...

Im Focus: Programmable nests for cells

KIT researchers develop novel composites of DNA, silica particles, and carbon nanotubes -- Properties can be tailored to various applications

Using DNA, smallest silica particles, and carbon nanotubes, researchers of Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) developed novel programmable materials....

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

VideoLinks
Industry & Economy
Event News

11th Advanced Battery Power Conference, March 24-25, 2020 in Münster/Germany

16.01.2020 | Event News

Laser Colloquium Hydrogen LKH2: fast and reliable fuel cell manufacturing

15.01.2020 | Event News

„Advanced Battery Power“- Conference, Contributions are welcome!

07.01.2020 | Event News

 
Latest News

Potential pivot for a more effective cancer immunotherapy

29.01.2020 | Life Sciences

Towards better anti-cancer drugs: New insights into CDK8, an important human oncogene

28.01.2020 | Life Sciences

Rice lab turns trash into valuable graphene in a flash

28.01.2020 | Materials Sciences

VideoLinks
Science & Research
Overview of more VideoLinks >>>