Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Quantum simulations uncoverhydrogen's phase transitions

24.06.2010
Hydrogen is the most abundant element in the universe and is a major component of giant planets such as Jupiter and Saturn.

But not much is known about what happens to this abundant element under high-pressure conditions when it transforms from one state to another.

Using quantum simulations, scientists at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign and the University of L'Aquia in Italy were able to uncover these phase transitions in the laboratory similar to how they would occur in the centers of giant planets.

They discovered a first order phase transition, a discontinuity, in liquid hydrogen between a molecular state with low conductivity and a highly conductive atomic state. The critical point of the transition occurs at high temperatures, near 3100 degrees Fahrenheit and more than 1 million atmospheres of pressure.

"This research sheds light on the properties of this ubiquitous element and may aid in efforts to understand the formation of planets," said LLNL's Eric Schwegler.

The team used a variety of sophisticated quantum simulation approaches to examine the onset of molecular diassociation in hydrogen under high-pressure conditions. The simulations indicated there is a range of densities where the electrical conductivity of the fluid increases in a discontinuous fashion for temperatures below 3100 degrees Fahrenheit.

There is a liquid-liquid-solid multiphase coexistence point in the hydrogen phase diagram that corresponds to the intersection of the liquid-liquid phase transition, according to Miguel Morales from the University of Illinois and lead author of a paper appearing online in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences for the week of June 21-25.

Other collaborators include Prof. David Ceperley from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, and Prof. Carlo Pierleoni from the University of L'Aquila. The work was funded in part by the National Nuclear Security Administration under the Stewardship Science Academic Alliances program.

Founded in 1952, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (www.llnl.gov) is a national security laboratory that develops science and engineering technology and provides innovative solutions to our nation's most important challenges. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is managed by Lawrence Livermore National Security, LLC for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration.

Anne Stark | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.llnl.gov

More articles from Physics and Astronomy:

nachricht Unraveling the nature of 'whistlers' from space in the lab
15.08.2018 | American Institute of Physics

nachricht Early opaque universe linked to galaxy scarcity
15.08.2018 | University of California - Riverside

All articles from Physics and Astronomy >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Unraveling the nature of 'whistlers' from space in the lab

A new study sheds light on how ultralow frequency radio waves and plasmas interact

Scientists at the University of California, Los Angeles present new research on a curious cosmic phenomenon known as "whistlers" -- very low frequency packets...

Im Focus: New interactive machine learning tool makes car designs more aerodynamic

Scientists develop first tool to use machine learning methods to compute flow around interactively designable 3D objects. Tool will be presented at this year’s prestigious SIGGRAPH conference.

When engineers or designers want to test the aerodynamic properties of the newly designed shape of a car, airplane, or other object, they would normally model...

Im Focus: Robots as 'pump attendants': TU Graz develops robot-controlled rapid charging system for e-vehicles

Researchers from TU Graz and their industry partners have unveiled a world first: the prototype of a robot-controlled, high-speed combined charging system (CCS) for electric vehicles that enables series charging of cars in various parking positions.

Global demand for electric vehicles is forecast to rise sharply: by 2025, the number of new vehicle registrations is expected to reach 25 million per year....

Im Focus: The “TRiC” to folding actin

Proteins must be folded correctly to fulfill their molecular functions in cells. Molecular assistants called chaperones help proteins exploit their inbuilt folding potential and reach the correct three-dimensional structure. Researchers at the Max Planck Institute of Biochemistry (MPIB) have demonstrated that actin, the most abundant protein in higher developed cells, does not have the inbuilt potential to fold and instead requires special assistance to fold into its active state. The chaperone TRiC uses a previously undescribed mechanism to perform actin folding. The study was recently published in the journal Cell.

Actin is the most abundant protein in highly developed cells and has diverse functions in processes like cell stabilization, cell division and muscle...

Im Focus: Lining up surprising behaviors of superconductor with one of the world's strongest magnets

Scientists have discovered that the electrical resistance of a copper-oxide compound depends on the magnetic field in a very unusual way -- a finding that could help direct the search for materials that can perfectly conduct electricity at room temperatur

What happens when really powerful magnets--capable of producing magnetic fields nearly two million times stronger than Earth's--are applied to materials that...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

VideoLinks
Industry & Economy
Event News

Within reach of the Universe

08.08.2018 | Event News

A journey through the history of microscopy – new exhibition opens at the MDC

27.07.2018 | Event News

2018 Work Research Conference

25.07.2018 | Event News

 
Latest News

Staying in Shape

16.08.2018 | Life Sciences

Diving robots find Antarctic seas exhale surprising amounts of carbon dioxide in winter

16.08.2018 | Earth Sciences

Protein droplets keep neurons at the ready and immune system in balance

16.08.2018 | Life Sciences

VideoLinks
Science & Research
Overview of more VideoLinks >>>