Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Physicists measured something new in the radioactive decay of neutrons

15.06.2016

The experiment inspired theorists; future ones could reveal new physics

A physics experiment performed at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) has enhanced scientists' understanding of how free neutrons decay into other particles. The work provides the first measurement of the energy spectrum of photons, or particles of light, that are released in the otherwise extensively measured process known as neutron beta decay. The details of this decay process are important because, for example, they help to explain the observed amounts of hydrogen and other light atoms created just after the Big Bang.


When a free neutron (green) undergoes a process known as beta decay, it produces a proton (red), an antineutrino (gold) and an electron (blue), as well as a photon (white). An experiment at NIST measured the range of energies that a given photon produced by beta decay can possess, a range known as its energy spectrum.

Credit: N. Hanacek / NIST

Published in Physical Review Letters, the findings confirm physicists' big-picture understanding of the way particles and forces work together in the universe--an understanding known as the Standard Model. The work has stimulated new theoretical activity in quantum electrodynamics (QED), the modern theory of how matter interacts with light. The team's approach could also help search for new physics that lies beyond the Standard Model.

Neutrons are well known as one of the three kinds of particles that form atoms. Present in all atoms except the most common form of hydrogen, neutrons together with protons form the atomic nucleus. However, "free" neutrons not bound within a nucleus decay in about 15 minutes on average. Most frequently, a neutron transforms through the beta decay process into a proton, an electron, a photon, and the antimatter version of the neutrino, an abundant but elusive particle that rarely interacts with matter.

... more about:
»NIST »QED »neutrons »photons »radioactive decay

The photons from beta decay are what the research team wanted to explore. These photons have a range of possible energies predicted by QED, which has worked very well as a theory for decades. But no one had actually checked this aspect of QED with high precision.

"We weren't expecting to see anything unusual," said NIST physicist Jeff Nico, "but we wanted to test QED's predictions very precisely in a way no one has done before."

Nico and his colleagues, who represent nine research institutions, performed their measurements at the NIST Center for Neutron Research (NCNR). It produces an intense beam of slow-moving neutrons whose photon emissions can be detected with the same setup used for earlier precision measurements of the neutron's lifetime.

The team measured two aspects of neutron decay: the energy spectrum of the photons, and also its branching ratio, which can provide information on how frequently the decays were accompanied by photons above a specific energy. The results of this effort gave them a branching ratio measurement more than twice as accurate as the previous value, and the first measurement of the energy spectrum.

"Everything we found was consistent with the predominant QED calculations," Nico said. "We got quite a good match with theory on the energy spectrum, and we reduced the uncertainty in the branching ratio."

According to Nico, the results provided specific information that theoretical physicists are already using to further develop QED to provide more detailed descriptions of neutron beta decay.

The results serve as a needed check on the Standard Model, said Nico, and validates the team's experimental approach as a way to go beyond it. With better detectors, the approach could be used to search for so-called "right-handed" neutrinos, which have not yet been detected in nature, and potential time-reversal symmetry violations, which could explain why there is much more matter than antimatter in the universe.

Media Contact

Chad Boutin
boutin@nist.gov
301-975-4261

 @usnistgov

http://www.nist.gov 

Chad Boutin | EurekAlert!

Further reports about: NIST QED neutrons photons radioactive decay

More articles from Physics and Astronomy:

nachricht When AI and optoelectronics meet: Researchers take control of light properties
20.11.2018 | Institut national de la recherche scientifique - INRS

nachricht How to melt gold at room temperature
20.11.2018 | Chalmers University of Technology

All articles from Physics and Astronomy >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Nonstop Tranport of Cargo in Nanomachines

Max Planck researchers revel the nano-structure of molecular trains and the reason for smooth transport in cellular antennas.

Moving around, sensing the extracellular environment, and signaling to other cells are important for a cell to function properly. Responsible for those tasks...

Im Focus: UNH scientists help provide first-ever views of elusive energy explosion

Researchers at the University of New Hampshire have captured a difficult-to-view singular event involving "magnetic reconnection"--the process by which sparse particles and energy around Earth collide producing a quick but mighty explosion--in the Earth's magnetotail, the magnetic environment that trails behind the planet.

Magnetic reconnection has remained a bit of a mystery to scientists. They know it exists and have documented the effects that the energy explosions can...

Im Focus: A Chip with Blood Vessels

Biochips have been developed at TU Wien (Vienna), on which tissue can be produced and examined. This allows supplying the tissue with different substances in a very controlled way.

Cultivating human cells in the Petri dish is not a big challenge today. Producing artificial tissue, however, permeated by fine blood vessels, is a much more...

Im Focus: A Leap Into Quantum Technology

Faster and secure data communication: This is the goal of a new joint project involving physicists from the University of Würzburg. The German Federal Ministry of Education and Research funds the project with 14.8 million euro.

In our digital world data security and secure communication are becoming more and more important. Quantum communication is a promising approach to achieve...

Im Focus: Research icebreaker Polarstern begins the Antarctic season

What does it look like below the ice shelf of the calved massive iceberg A68?

On Saturday, 10 November 2018, the research icebreaker Polarstern will leave its homeport of Bremerhaven, bound for Cape Town, South Africa.

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

VideoLinks
Industry & Economy
Event News

Optical Coherence Tomography: German-Japanese Research Alliance hosted Medical Imaging Conference

19.11.2018 | Event News

“3rd Conference on Laser Polishing – LaP 2018” Attracts International Experts and Users

09.11.2018 | Event News

On the brain’s ability to find the right direction

06.11.2018 | Event News

 
Latest News

Nonstop Tranport of Cargo in Nanomachines

20.11.2018 | Life Sciences

Researchers find social cultures in chimpanzees

20.11.2018 | Life Sciences

When AI and optoelectronics meet: Researchers take control of light properties

20.11.2018 | Physics and Astronomy

VideoLinks
Science & Research
Overview of more VideoLinks >>>