Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

New mystery discovered regarding active asteroid Phaethon

02.07.2018

Based on a new study of how near-Earth asteroid Phaethon reflects light at different angles, astronomers think that its surface may reflect less light than previously thought. This is an exciting mystery for the recently approved DESTINY+ mission to investigate when it flies past Phaethon.

The way an object reflects light depends not only on its albedo (the percentage of light it reflects) but also on the illumination angle. One particular effect that scientists are interested in is how the polarization changes when sunlight reflects off the surface of an asteroid.


The DESTINY+ mission is scheduled to investigate Phaethon.

Credit: NAOJ

Scientifically, light is referred to as electromagnetic waves; the waves create changes in the electric and magnetic fields. The directions of these changes can either be random or aligned. When the electromagnetic effects of light are aligned, the light is said to be polarized.

An international team, including astronomers from the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan (NAOJ), Seoul National University, Chiba Institute of Technology, and other institutes, used the 1.6-m Pirka Telescope at Nayoro Observatory in Hokkaido Japan to observe the near-Earth asteroid (3200) Phaethon. They studied the changes in the polarization of the light it reflected at many different illumination angles. The results show that at some angles, the light reflected from Phaethon is the most polarized light ever observed among small bodies in the Solar System.

Discovered in 1983, Phaethon has been shown to be the parent body of the Geminid meteor shower. Most meteor-shower parent bodies are comets, but Phaethon doesn't show typical cometary activity. Instead it is an active asteroid with confirmed dust ejections. It also has a surprisingly blue color. The fact that its reflected light is strongly polarized is one more mystery surrounding this curious asteroid.

One possible explanation for the strong polarization is that the surface of Phaethon might be darker than expected. Asteroid surfaces are covered with loose rubble. When light reflected by the rough surface strikes another part of the surface and is reflected again before being reflected towards the observer, these multiple scatterings randomize the polarization.

Dr. Ito from NAOJ, a leader of the research team explains, "If the albedo is lower than previously thought, that would reduce the effectiveness of multiple scatterings; so that strongly polarized light that has only been reflected a single time would dominate."

Other possibilities that could reduce the effectiveness of multiple scatterings are that the rubble covering Phaethon's surface might be composed of larger grains, or the material may be more porous than expected. A possible mechanism to produces large grains is sintering. The surface of Phaethon can be heated up to 1000 degrees Celsius during its closest passage to the Sun. Such extreme heating can cause sintering on an asteroid's surface, resulting in coarser grains.

The Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency's DESTINY+ probe, scheduled to launch in 2022, will take pictures as it flies by Phaethon to help astronomers better characterize its surface geology.

Media Contact

Hinako Fukushi
hina@cfca.jp

http://www.nins.jp/english/ 

Hinako Fukushi | EurekAlert!
Further information:
https://www.nao.ac.jp/en/news/science/2018/20180629-cfca.html
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-018-04727-2

More articles from Physics and Astronomy:

nachricht Computer model predicts how fracturing metallic glass releases energy at the atomic level
20.07.2018 | American Institute of Physics

nachricht What happens when we heat the atomic lattice of a magnet all of a sudden?
18.07.2018 | Forschungsverbund Berlin

All articles from Physics and Astronomy >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Future electronic components to be printed like newspapers

A new manufacturing technique uses a process similar to newspaper printing to form smoother and more flexible metals for making ultrafast electronic devices.

The low-cost process, developed by Purdue University researchers, combines tools already used in industry for manufacturing metals on a large scale, but uses...

Im Focus: First evidence on the source of extragalactic particles

For the first time ever, scientists have determined the cosmic origin of highest-energy neutrinos. A research group led by IceCube scientist Elisa Resconi, spokesperson of the Collaborative Research Center SFB1258 at the Technical University of Munich (TUM), provides an important piece of evidence that the particles detected by the IceCube neutrino telescope at the South Pole originate from a galaxy four billion light-years away from Earth.

To rule out other origins with certainty, the team led by neutrino physicist Elisa Resconi from the Technical University of Munich and multi-wavelength...

Im Focus: Magnetic vortices: Two independent magnetic skyrmion phases discovered in a single material

For the first time a team of researchers have discovered two different phases of magnetic skyrmions in a single material. Physicists of the Technical Universities of Munich and Dresden and the University of Cologne can now better study and understand the properties of these magnetic structures, which are important for both basic research and applications.

Whirlpools are an everyday experience in a bath tub: When the water is drained a circular vortex is formed. Typically, such whirls are rather stable. Similar...

Im Focus: Breaking the bond: To take part or not?

Physicists working with Roland Wester at the University of Innsbruck have investigated if and how chemical reactions can be influenced by targeted vibrational excitation of the reactants. They were able to demonstrate that excitation with a laser beam does not affect the efficiency of a chemical exchange reaction and that the excited molecular group acts only as a spectator in the reaction.

A frequently used reaction in organic chemistry is nucleophilic substitution. It plays, for example, an important role in in the synthesis of new chemical...

Im Focus: New 2D Spectroscopy Methods

Optical spectroscopy allows investigating the energy structure and dynamic properties of complex quantum systems. Researchers from the University of Würzburg present two new approaches of coherent two-dimensional spectroscopy.

"Put an excitation into the system and observe how it evolves." According to physicist Professor Tobias Brixner, this is the credo of optical spectroscopy....

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

VideoLinks
Industry & Economy
Event News

Leading experts in Diabetes, Metabolism and Biomedical Engineering discuss Precision Medicine

13.07.2018 | Event News

Conference on Laser Polishing – LaP: Fine Tuning for Surfaces

12.07.2018 | Event News

11th European Wood-based Panel Symposium 2018: Meeting point for the wood-based materials industry

03.07.2018 | Event News

 
Latest News

A smart safe rechargeable zinc ion battery based on sol-gel transition electrolytes

20.07.2018 | Power and Electrical Engineering

Reversing cause and effect is no trouble for quantum computers

20.07.2018 | Information Technology

Princeton-UPenn research team finds physics treasure hidden in a wallpaper pattern

20.07.2018 | Materials Sciences

VideoLinks
Science & Research
Overview of more VideoLinks >>>