Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

HiRISE Camera Captures High-Resolution 3D Images of Mars

09.12.2008
The High Resolution Science Imaging Experiment, or HiRISE, team based at The University of Arizona today released 362 three-dimensional images of Mars taken by the HiRISE camera on NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter.

Other Mars-orbiting cameras have taken 3D views of Mars, but the HiRISE camera - the most powerful camera ever to orbit another planet - can resolve features as small as one meter, or 40 inches, across.

"It's really remarkable to see Martian rocks and features on the scale of a person in 3D," said Alfred McEwen of UA's Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, HiRISE principal investigator. "The level of detail is just much, much greater than anything previously seen from orbit."

The 3D images, or anaglyphs, can be viewed on the HiRISE Web site
(http://hirise.lpl.arizona.edu/anaglyph) with inexpensive color filter glasses commonly used for viewing 3D images and movies. The HiRISE Web site links to information on where to purchase and how to make 3D red-cyan filter glasses.

Without 3D glasses, the Mars images appear out of register.

(In Tucson, UA's Flandrau Science Center, 1601 E. University Blvd., and Starizona, 5757 N. Oracle Road, sell red-cyan filter glasses for $2 each.)

Seen in HiRISE 3D, Mars becomes a collection of deep panoramic views that leap out from the computer screen.

"You'd swear you could touch the terrain," HiRISE operations manager Eric Eliason said.

Striking stereo views include:

* Sixty-meter tall, or 200-foot-tall fractured mounds, probably composed of solidified lava, on the southern edge of Elysium Planitia. The fractured surface suggests that lava pushed the surface into domes, uplifting some sides along the same fracture higher than others.

* Spectacular layers exposed on the floor about 2-and-a-half miles, or 4 kilometers, below the rim of Candor Chasma, which is a large canyon in the Valles Marineris system. The canyon may once have been filled to its rim by sedimentary layers of sand and dust-sized particles, but these have since eroded, leaving patterns of elongated hills and layered terrain that has been turned and folded in many angles and directions.

* Groups of gullies at different elevations along the wall of an unnamed crater in Terra Cimmeria. The anaglyph image provides three-dimensional perspective on the depth of the gullies and the amount of material deposited below the gullies.

Geological evidence suggests that the gullies may have formed by subsurface water, rather than by snow or ice melting on the surface.

Other dramatic anaglyphs show a huge jumbled mass of rock that includes megabreccia at a central peak in Ritchey crater, ejecta-formed channels and mudflows at Hale crater, tightly folded rock layers lining the floor of Tithonium Chasm, "spiders" created by carbon dioxide venting through south polar layered deposits, and Martian glacier flows.

Eliason and the team at HiROC, the High Resolution Imaging Operations Center on the UA campus, began processing stereo images in October. They automated some of the software used in processing HiRISE images so two images of a stereo pair could be fed into the software "pipeline" and correlated automatically.

"The real advance here is making this process semi-automated so we can really crank through all these huge images," McEwen said. Producing anaglyphs from stereo pairs is otherwise a tedious, time-consuming effort.

The HiRISE camera has so far taken 950 stereo image pairs. The camera features a half-meter, or 20-inch, diameter primary mirror and a focal plane mechanism that can acquire up to a 3.6 megapixel image in about 11 seconds.

The anaglyphs are among 1,642 observations containing 3.6 terabytes of data and 148,000 image products that HiRISE released today to the Planetary Data System, or the PDS, the NASA mission data archive.

Since HiRISE began the science phase of its mission in November 2006, the HiRISE team has released a total 867,430 image products, or 30.2 terabytes of data.

That is by far the greatest volume of data a space experiment has delivered to the PDS, and well more than twice the data volume some HiRISE team members expected to get during the primary science phase.

The HIRISE camera was designed to take images at high-convergence angles so researchers can calculate the thickness of surface features to within about 10 inches, or 25 centimeters. High-convergence angles used to get quantitative measurements aren't always best for making anaglyphs, McEwen said.

In addition, if the two stereo images on two different orbits were taken far enough apart in time, the illumination or air opacity may have changed, or frost or dust devils may have appeared in one of the images, so paired images don't always match that well, he added.

"Nevertheless, many of these stereo anaglyphs are very interesting and useful to us in understanding the topography," McEwen said.

"There's a lot of science to be done by just looking at these directly and understanding what's up and what's down," he added. "Anaglyphs can definitely change how we interpret things, and help us focus on how to proceed when it comes to prioritizing some science tasks."

Binocular vision gives humans wearing 3D color glasses the ability to see anaglyphs in three dimensions the same way they see in three dimensions through a View-Master viewer or a Victorian-era stereoscope. The same scene is viewed in two pictures taken from slightly different angles. Each eye has its own slightly different view, which the brain fuses together into a single picture with depth.

With the colored glasses, the red filter for the left eye sees only red in the picture, the cyan filter for the right eye sees only blue-green in the picture, and the brain correlates the images. The glasses work for viewing stereo pictures in print or on TV, movie and computer screens.

The Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter is managed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., for NASA's Science Mission Directorate, Washington. Lockheed Martin Space Systems of Denver built the spacecraft. The UA operates the HiRISE camera, built by Ball Aerospace and Technologies Corp. of Boulder, Colo.

SCIENCE CONTACTS:
Alfred McEwen (520-621-4573; mcewen@pirl.lpl.arizona.edu) Eric Eliason (520-626-0764; eeliason@pirl.lpl.arizona.edu)

Lori Stiles | University of Arizona
Further information:
http://www.arizona.edu
http://hirise.lpl.arizona.edu/anaglyph
http://www.nasa.gov/mro

More articles from Physics and Astronomy:

nachricht Early opaque universe linked to galaxy scarcity
15.08.2018 | University of California - Riverside

nachricht MSU astronomers discovered supermassive black hole in an ultracompact dwarf galaxy
14.08.2018 | Lomonosov Moscow State University

All articles from Physics and Astronomy >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: New interactive machine learning tool makes car designs more aerodynamic

Scientists develop first tool to use machine learning methods to compute flow around interactively designable 3D objects. Tool will be presented at this year’s prestigious SIGGRAPH conference.

When engineers or designers want to test the aerodynamic properties of the newly designed shape of a car, airplane, or other object, they would normally model...

Im Focus: Robots as 'pump attendants': TU Graz develops robot-controlled rapid charging system for e-vehicles

Researchers from TU Graz and their industry partners have unveiled a world first: the prototype of a robot-controlled, high-speed combined charging system (CCS) for electric vehicles that enables series charging of cars in various parking positions.

Global demand for electric vehicles is forecast to rise sharply: by 2025, the number of new vehicle registrations is expected to reach 25 million per year....

Im Focus: The “TRiC” to folding actin

Proteins must be folded correctly to fulfill their molecular functions in cells. Molecular assistants called chaperones help proteins exploit their inbuilt folding potential and reach the correct three-dimensional structure. Researchers at the Max Planck Institute of Biochemistry (MPIB) have demonstrated that actin, the most abundant protein in higher developed cells, does not have the inbuilt potential to fold and instead requires special assistance to fold into its active state. The chaperone TRiC uses a previously undescribed mechanism to perform actin folding. The study was recently published in the journal Cell.

Actin is the most abundant protein in highly developed cells and has diverse functions in processes like cell stabilization, cell division and muscle...

Im Focus: Lining up surprising behaviors of superconductor with one of the world's strongest magnets

Scientists have discovered that the electrical resistance of a copper-oxide compound depends on the magnetic field in a very unusual way -- a finding that could help direct the search for materials that can perfectly conduct electricity at room temperatur

What happens when really powerful magnets--capable of producing magnetic fields nearly two million times stronger than Earth's--are applied to materials that...

Im Focus: World record: Fastest 3-D tomographic images at BESSY II

The quality of materials often depends on the manufacturing process. In casting and welding, for example, the rate at which melts solidify and the resulting microstructure of the alloy is important. With metallic foams as well, it depends on exactly how the foaming process takes place. To understand these processes fully requires fast sensing capability. The fastest 3D tomographic images to date have now been achieved at the BESSY II X-ray source operated by the Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin.

Dr. Francisco Garcia-Moreno and his team have designed a turntable that rotates ultra-stably about its axis at a constant rotational speed. This really depends...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

VideoLinks
Industry & Economy
Event News

Within reach of the Universe

08.08.2018 | Event News

A journey through the history of microscopy – new exhibition opens at the MDC

27.07.2018 | Event News

2018 Work Research Conference

25.07.2018 | Event News

 
Latest News

Early opaque universe linked to galaxy scarcity

15.08.2018 | Physics and Astronomy

Molecular switch detects metals in the environment

15.08.2018 | Materials Sciences

Seeing on the Quick: New Insights into Active Vision in the Brain

15.08.2018 | Life Sciences

VideoLinks
Science & Research
Overview of more VideoLinks >>>