Because graphene is a two-dimensional material, "all of it is an exposed surface," says physical chemist Phaedon Avouris, manager of the Nanometer Scale Science and Technology division at IBM's T.J. Watson Research Center in Yorktown Heights, N.Y.
"While graphene has a number of extremely useful properties, including very fast electron mobility, high mechanical strength, and excellent thermal conductivity, the interactions of graphene with its environment – for example, with the substrate it is placed on, the ambient environment, or other materials in a device structure – can drastically affect and change its intrinsic properties."
"Our interest is to understand the properties of this new material under conditions that are present in actual technology and apply this knowledge to design, fabricate, and test graphene-based electronic and optoelectronic devices and circuits," says Avouris, who will present new experimental results on the use of graphene in fast electronics and photonics at the AVS meeting in Nashville, Tenn., held Oct. 30 – Nov. 4. He will also discuss what still needs to be done to translate these applications into commercial products.
Avouris, an IBM Fellow, has been involved in nanotechnology research for 25 years, and has spent the last 15 years studying the properties and applications of carbon nanotubes, a close relative of graphene. "So it was natural that when graphene was isolated in 2004, I turned my attention to it. With the help of funding from DARPA, we started a focused effort on graphene electronics," he says.
Unlike conventional semiconductors like silicon and gallium arsenide, which are currently used in electronics, graphene does not have a band-gap – the energy difference between a material's non-conductive and conductive state. "This makes it unsuitable for building digital switches, which require the ability to switch the current off completely," Avouris says. "However," he adds, "the excellent electrical properties of graphene, such as its high electron mobility coupled with modest current modulation, make it very appropriate for very fast (high-frequency) analog electronics," which are used in wireless communications, radar, security systems, imaging, and other applications.
"We already have demonstrated high-frequency graphene transistors – greater than 200 gigahertz – and simple electronic circuits such as frequency mixers," says Avouris, "and we have also demonstrated very fast photodetectors and have used them to detect optical data streams."
In the future, graphene researchers need to improve the quality of synthetic graphene and to study its properties under conditions relevant to technology, says Avouris, who is "very optimistic" about the future of graphene in both electronics and photonics and anticipates the development of additional new applications.
The AVS 58th International Symposium & Exhibition will be held Oct. 30 – Nov. 4 at the Nashville Convention Center.
Presentation NS-WeM-4, "Graphene-based Electronics and Optoelectronics," is at 9 a.m. on Wednesday, Nov. 2.
Main meeting website: http://www2.avs.org/symposium/AVS58/pages/greetings.html
Technical Program: http://www2.avs.org/symposium
Catherine Meyers | EurekAlert!
When fluid flows almost as fast as light -- with quantum rotation
22.06.2018 | The Henryk Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics Polish Academy of Sciences
Thermal Radiation from Tiny Particles
22.06.2018 | Universität Greifswald
In a recent publication in the renowned journal Optica, scientists of Leibniz-Institute of Photonic Technology (Leibniz IPHT) in Jena showed that they can accurately control the optical properties of liquid-core fiber lasers and therefore their spectral band width by temperature and pressure tuning.
Already last year, the researchers provided experimental proof of a new dynamic of hybrid solitons– temporally and spectrally stationary light waves resulting...
Scientists from the University of Freiburg and the University of Basel identified a master regulator for bone regeneration. Prasad Shastri, Professor of...
Moving into its fourth decade, AchemAsia is setting out for new horizons: The International Expo and Innovation Forum for Sustainable Chemical Production will take place from 21-23 May 2019 in Shanghai, China. With an updated event profile, the eleventh edition focusses on topics that are especially relevant for the Chinese process industry, putting a strong emphasis on sustainability and innovation.
Founded in 1989 as a spin-off of ACHEMA to cater to the needs of China’s then developing industry, AchemAsia has since grown into a platform where the latest...
The BMBF-funded OWICELLS project was successfully completed with a final presentation at the BMW plant in Munich. The presentation demonstrated a Li-Fi communication with a mobile robot, while the robot carried out usual production processes (welding, moving and testing parts) in a 5x5m² production cell. The robust, optical wireless transmission is based on spatial diversity; in other words, data is sent and received simultaneously by several LEDs and several photodiodes. The system can transmit data at more than 100 Mbit/s and five milliseconds latency.
Modern production technologies in the automobile industry must become more flexible in order to fulfil individual customer requirements.
An international team of scientists has discovered a new way to transfer image information through multimodal fibers with almost no distortion - even if the fiber is bent. The results of the study, to which scientist from the Leibniz-Institute of Photonic Technology Jena (Leibniz IPHT) contributed, were published on 6thJune in the highly-cited journal Physical Review Letters.
Endoscopes allow doctors to see into a patient’s body like through a keyhole. Typically, the images are transmitted via a bundle of several hundreds of optical...
13.06.2018 | Event News
08.06.2018 | Event News
05.06.2018 | Event News
22.06.2018 | Materials Sciences
22.06.2018 | Earth Sciences
22.06.2018 | Life Sciences