Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

An easy, scalable and direct method for synthesizing graphene in silicon microelectronics

22.07.2015

Korean researchers grow 4-inch diameter, high-quality, multi-layer graphene on desired silicon substrates, an important step for harnessing graphene in commercial silicon microelectronics

In the last decade, graphene has been intensively studied for its unique optical, mechanical, electrical and structural properties. The one-atom-thick carbon sheets could revolutionize the way electronic devices are manufactured and lead to faster transistors, cheaper solar cells, new types of sensors and more efficient bioelectric sensory devices.


This is a Wafer-scale (4 inch in diameter) synthesis of multi-layer graphene using high-temperature carbon ion implantation on nickel / SiO2 /silicon.

Credit: J.Kim/Korea University, Korea

As a potential contact electrode and interconnection material, wafer-scale graphene could be an essential component in microelectronic circuits, but most graphene fabrication methods are not compatible with silicon microelectronics, thus blocking graphene's leap from potential wonder material to actual profit-maker.

Now researchers from Korea University, in Seoul, have developed an easy and microelectronics-compatible method to grow graphene and have successfully synthesized wafer-scale (four inches in diameter), high-quality, multi-layer graphene on silicon substrates. The method is based on an ion implantation technique, a process in which ions are accelerated under an electrical field and smashed into a semiconductor. The impacting ions change the physical, chemical or electrical properties of the semiconductor.

In a paper published this week in the journal Applied Physics Letters, from AIP Publishing, the researchers describe their work, which takes graphene a step closer to commercial applications in silicon microelectronics.

"For integrating graphene into advanced silicon microelectronics, large-area graphene free of wrinkles, tears and residues must be deposited on silicon wafers at low temperatures, which cannot be achieved with conventional graphene synthesis techniques as they often require high temperatures," said Jihyun Kim, the team leader and a professor in the Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering at Korea University. "Our work shows that the carbon ion implantation technique has great potential for the direct synthesis of wafer-scale graphene for integrated circuit technologies."

Discovered just over a decade ago, graphene is now considered the thinnest, lightest and strongest material in the world. Graphene is completely flexible and transparent while being inexpensive and non-toxic, and it can conduct electricity as well as copper, carrying electrons with almost no resistance even at room temperature, a property known as ballistic transport. Graphene's unique optical, mechanical and electrical properties have lead to the one-atom-thick form of carbon being heralded as the next generation material for faster, smaller, cheaper and less power-hungry electronics.

"In silicon microelectronics, graphene is a potential contact electrode and an interconnection material linking semiconductor devices to form the desired electrical circuits," said Kim. "This renders high processing temperature undesirable, as temperature-induced damage, strains, metal spiking and unintentional diffusion of dopants may occur."

Thus, although the conventional graphene fabrication method of chemical vapor deposition is widely used for the large-area synthesis of graphene on copper and nickel films, the method is not suited for silicon microelectronics, as chemical vapor deposition would require a high growth temperature above 1,000 degrees Celsius and a subsequent transfer process of the graphene from the metallic film to the silicon.

"The transferred graphene on the target substrate often contains cracks, wrinkles and contaminants," said Kim. "Thus, we are motivated to develop a transfer-free method to directly synthesize high quality, multilayer graphene in silicon microelectronics."

Kim's method relies on ion implantation, a microelectronics-compatible technique normally used to introduce impurities into semiconductors. In the process, carbon ions were accelerated under an electrical field and bombarded onto a layered surface made of nickel, silicon dioxide and silicon at the temperature of 500 degrees Celsius. The nickel layer, with high carbon solubility, is used as a catalyst for graphene synthesis. The process is then followed by high temperature activation annealing (about 600 to 900 degrees Celsius) to form a honeycomb lattice of carbon atoms, a typical microscopic structure of graphene.

Kim explained that the activation annealing temperature could be lowered by performing the ion implantation at an elevated temperature. Kim and his colleagues then systematically studied the effects of the annealing conditions on the synthesis of high-quality, multi-layer graphene by varying the ambient pressure, ambient gas, temperature and time during the treatment.

According to Kim, the ion implantation technique also offers finer control on the final structure of the product than other fabrication methods, as the graphene layer thickness can be precisely determined by controlling the dose of carbon ion implantation.

"Our synthesis method is controllable and scalable, allowing us to obtain graphene as large as the size of the silicon wafer [over 300 millimeters in diameter]," Kim said.

The researchers' next step is to further lower the temperature in the synthesis process and to control the thickness of the graphene for manufacturing production.

###

The article, "Wafer-scale synthesis of multi-layer graphene by high-temperature carbon ion implantation," is authored by Janghyuk Kim, Geonyeop Lee and Jihyun Kim. It will be published in the journal Applied Physics Letters on July 21, 2015 (DOI: 10.1063/1.4926605). After that date, it can be accessed at: http://scitation.aip.org/content/aip/journal/apl/107/3/10.1063/1.4926605

ABOUT THE JOURNAL

Applied Physics Letters features concise, rapid reports on significant new findings in applied physics. The journal covers new experimental and theoretical research on applications of physics phenomena related to all branches of science, engineering, and modern technology. See: http://apl.aip.org

Media Contact

Jason Socrates Bardi
jbardi@aip.org
240-535-4954

 @jasonbardi

http://www.aip.org 

Jason Socrates Bardi | EurekAlert!

More articles from Physics and Astronomy:

nachricht What happens when we heat the atomic lattice of a magnet all of a sudden?
18.07.2018 | Forschungsverbund Berlin

nachricht Subaru Telescope helps pinpoint origin of ultra-high energy neutrino
16.07.2018 | National Institutes of Natural Sciences

All articles from Physics and Astronomy >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: First evidence on the source of extragalactic particles

For the first time ever, scientists have determined the cosmic origin of highest-energy neutrinos. A research group led by IceCube scientist Elisa Resconi, spokesperson of the Collaborative Research Center SFB1258 at the Technical University of Munich (TUM), provides an important piece of evidence that the particles detected by the IceCube neutrino telescope at the South Pole originate from a galaxy four billion light-years away from Earth.

To rule out other origins with certainty, the team led by neutrino physicist Elisa Resconi from the Technical University of Munich and multi-wavelength...

Im Focus: Magnetic vortices: Two independent magnetic skyrmion phases discovered in a single material

For the first time a team of researchers have discovered two different phases of magnetic skyrmions in a single material. Physicists of the Technical Universities of Munich and Dresden and the University of Cologne can now better study and understand the properties of these magnetic structures, which are important for both basic research and applications.

Whirlpools are an everyday experience in a bath tub: When the water is drained a circular vortex is formed. Typically, such whirls are rather stable. Similar...

Im Focus: Breaking the bond: To take part or not?

Physicists working with Roland Wester at the University of Innsbruck have investigated if and how chemical reactions can be influenced by targeted vibrational excitation of the reactants. They were able to demonstrate that excitation with a laser beam does not affect the efficiency of a chemical exchange reaction and that the excited molecular group acts only as a spectator in the reaction.

A frequently used reaction in organic chemistry is nucleophilic substitution. It plays, for example, an important role in in the synthesis of new chemical...

Im Focus: New 2D Spectroscopy Methods

Optical spectroscopy allows investigating the energy structure and dynamic properties of complex quantum systems. Researchers from the University of Würzburg present two new approaches of coherent two-dimensional spectroscopy.

"Put an excitation into the system and observe how it evolves." According to physicist Professor Tobias Brixner, this is the credo of optical spectroscopy....

Im Focus: Chemical reactions in the light of ultrashort X-ray pulses from free-electron lasers

Ultra-short, high-intensity X-ray flashes open the door to the foundations of chemical reactions. Free-electron lasers generate these kinds of pulses, but there is a catch: the pulses vary in duration and energy. An international research team has now presented a solution: Using a ring of 16 detectors and a circularly polarized laser beam, they can determine both factors with attosecond accuracy.

Free-electron lasers (FELs) generate extremely short and intense X-ray flashes. Researchers can use these flashes to resolve structures with diameters on the...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

VideoLinks
Industry & Economy
Event News

Leading experts in Diabetes, Metabolism and Biomedical Engineering discuss Precision Medicine

13.07.2018 | Event News

Conference on Laser Polishing – LaP: Fine Tuning for Surfaces

12.07.2018 | Event News

11th European Wood-based Panel Symposium 2018: Meeting point for the wood-based materials industry

03.07.2018 | Event News

 
Latest News

Global study of world's beaches shows threat to protected areas

19.07.2018 | Earth Sciences

New creepy, crawly search and rescue robot developed at Ben-Gurion U

19.07.2018 | Power and Electrical Engineering

Metal too 'gummy' to cut? Draw on it with a Sharpie or glue stick, science says

19.07.2018 | Materials Sciences

VideoLinks
Science & Research
Overview of more VideoLinks >>>