Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Similarities found in cancer initiation in kidney, liver, stomach, pancreas

21.02.2018

Potential for therapies that interfere with early cancer growth

Recent research at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis demonstrated that mature cells in the stomach sometimes revert back to behaving like rapidly dividing stem cells. Now, the researchers have found that this process may be universal; no matter the organ, when tissue responds to certain types of injury, mature cells seem to get younger and begin dividing rapidly, creating scenarios that can lead to cancer.


Researchers at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis have found that when mature cells transition to begin dividing again, they all seem to do it the same way, regardless of what organ those cells come from. Shown are stomach cells transitioning from a mature to a stem cell-like state.

Credit: Washington University School of Medicine

Older cells may be dangerous because when they revert to stem cell-like behavior, they carry with them all of the potential cancer-causing mutations that have accumulated during their lifespans. However, because mature cells in the stomach, pancreas, liver and kidney all activate the same genes and go through the same process when they begin to divide again, the findings could mean that cancer initiation is much more similar across organs than scientists have thought. That could support using the same strategies to treat or prevent cancer in a variety of different organs.

The findings about how mature cells begin dividing again -- a process the researchers have named paligenosis -- are reported Feb. 15 in The EMBO Journal.

... more about:
»CANCER »EMBO »Similarities »genes »liver »pancreas »stomach

"When we began the war on cancer in the 1970s, scientists thought all cancers were similar," said senior investigator Jason C. Mills, MD, PhD, a professor of medicine in the Division of Gastroenterology. "It turned out cancers are very different from one organ to another and from person to person. But if, as this study suggests, the way that cells become proliferative again is similar across many different organs, we can imagine therapies that interfere with cancer initiation in a more global way, regardless of where that cancer may appear in the body."

Studying cells from the stomach and pancreas in humans and mice, as well as mouse kidney and liver cells, and cells from more than 800 tumor and precancerous lesions in people, the researchers found when tissue is injured by infections or trauma, mature cells can revert back to a stem-cell state in which they divide repeatedly. And along the way, those cells all activate the same genes to break down the mature cells and help them begin to divide again.

"First, we saw a massive increase in the activity of genes associated with cell degradation," said first author Spencer G. Willet, PhD, a research associate in the Mills lab. "Then, the cell's growth pathway senses that degradation and releases nutrients that then activate cell growth pathways and allow the mature cells we studied to proliferate."

Paligenosis, Mills explained, appears similar to apoptosis -- the programmed death of cells as a normal part of an organism's growth and development -- in that it seems to happen the same way in every cell, regardless of its location in the body.

"Nature has provided a way for mature cells to begin dividing again," Mills said, "and that process is the same in every tissue we've studied."

Willet, Mills and their colleagues believe the discovery that cells in different organs go through the same process to become proliferative could lead to new potential targets for cancer treatment because the factors that initiate tumors could be the same in multiple organs.

"If you were to compare this reprogramming of cells to tearing down a building and putting something new in its place, the slow way to go would be to remove and then replace each brick, one at a time," Mills said. "What we're seeing is that nature is smarter than just running the building program in reverse. Instead, there is a wrecking ball program: When an old cell begins to divide again, a program runs to clear things out and then rebuild, and the same program runs in every tissue we've analyzed."

###

Willet SG, et al. Differentiated cells become regenerative in diverse biological contexts using a common program: paligenosis. The EMBO Journal, Feb. 21, 2018.

This work was supported by the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, the National Institute of General Medical Sciences, the National Cancer Institute and the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), grant numbers R01 DK094989, R01 DK105129, R01 DK110406, P30 CA091842, CA00954731, 5T32GM007067-43, GM007067, HL38180, DK112378. DK56260 and P30 DK052574. Additional funding provided by the Alvin J. Siteman Cancer Center/Barnes Jewish Hospital Foundation Cancer Frontier Fund, the Barnard Trust, The DeNardo Education & Research Foundation, the Philip and Sima Needleman Student Fellowship in Regenerative Medicine, and the National Natural Science Foundation of China.

Washington University School of Medicine's 2,100 employed and volunteer faculty physicians also are the medical staff of Barnes-Jewish and St. Louis Children's hospitals. The School of Medicine is one of the leading medical research, teaching and patient-care institutions in the nation, currently ranked seventh in the nation by U.S. News & World Report. Through its affiliations with Barnes-Jewish and St. Louis Children's hospitals, the School of Medicine is linked to BJC HealthCare.

Media Contact

Jim Dryden
jdryden@wustl.edu
314-286-0110

 @WUSTLmed

http://www.medicine.wustl.edu 

Jim Dryden | EurekAlert!

Further reports about: CANCER EMBO Similarities genes liver pancreas stomach

More articles from Health and Medicine:

nachricht Building blocks for new medications: the University of Graz is seeking a technology partner
19.03.2019 | Karl-Franzens-Universität Graz

nachricht Scientists find new approach that shows promise for treating cystic fibrosis
14.03.2019 | NIH/National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute

All articles from Health and Medicine >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Stellar cartography

The Potsdam Echelle Polarimetric and Spectroscopic Instrument (PEPSI) at the Large Binocular Telescope (LBT) in Arizona released its first image of the surface magnetic field of another star. In a paper in the European journal Astronomy & Astrophysics, the PEPSI team presents a Zeeman- Doppler-Image of the surface of the magnetically active star II Pegasi.

A special technique allows astronomers to resolve the surfaces of faraway stars. Those are otherwise only seen as point sources, even in the largest telescopes...

Im Focus: Heading towards a tsunami of light

Researchers at Chalmers University of Technology and the University of Gothenburg, Sweden, have proposed a way to create a completely new source of radiation. Ultra-intense light pulses consist of the motion of a single wave and can be described as a tsunami of light. The strong wave can be used to study interactions between matter and light in a unique way. Their research is now published in the scientific journal Physical Review Letters.

"This source of radiation lets us look at reality through a new angle - it is like twisting a mirror and discovering something completely different," says...

Im Focus: Revealing the secret of the vacuum for the first time

New research group at the University of Jena combines theory and experiment to demonstrate for the first time certain physical processes in a quantum vacuum

For most people, a vacuum is an empty space. Quantum physics, on the other hand, assumes that even in this lowest-energy state, particles and antiparticles...

Im Focus: Sussex scientists one step closer to a clock that could replace GPS and Galileo

Physicists in the EPic Lab at University of Sussex make crucial development in global race to develop a portable atomic clock

Scientists in the Emergent Photonics Lab (EPic Lab) at the University of Sussex have made a breakthrough to a crucial element of an atomic clock - devices...

Im Focus: Sensing shakes

A new way to sense earthquakes could help improve early warning systems

Every year earthquakes worldwide claim hundreds or even thousands of lives. Forewarning allows people to head for safety and a matter of seconds could spell...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

VideoLinks
Industry & Economy
Event News

International Modelica Conference with 330 visitors from 21 countries at OTH Regensburg

11.03.2019 | Event News

Selection Completed: 580 Young Scientists from 88 Countries at the Lindau Nobel Laureate Meeting

01.03.2019 | Event News

LightMAT 2019 – 3rd International Conference on Light Materials – Science and Technology

28.02.2019 | Event News

 
Latest News

Levitating objects with light

19.03.2019 | Physics and Astronomy

New technique for in-cell distance determination

19.03.2019 | Life Sciences

Stellar cartography

19.03.2019 | Physics and Astronomy

VideoLinks
Science & Research
Overview of more VideoLinks >>>