As antiviral treatment for HIV infection allows patients to live longer, many will be confronted with additional health challenges. A new study shows for the first time that one of these may be significantly increased risk of bone fractures.
The report in the September Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism finds that fracture prevalence was increased more than 60 percent in those infected with HIV compared to patients without HIV infection.
"This is the largest investigation to date to compare fracture rates in HIV-infected patients with those of non-infected controls," says Steven Grinspoon, MD, of the Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) Neuroendocrine Unit and Program in Nutritional Metabolism, the report's senior author. "This very large study group – with more than 8,500 HIV-infected patients and over two million controls – has the power to detect significant differences in risk for both men and women at critical sites such as the hip and spine, risks that increased with age."
Previous studies of the impact of HIV on bone health focused on bone density and reported increased prevalence of osteoporosis and the less-serious condition osteopenia in HIV-infected men and women, but evaluation of the consequences of these conditions was limited. For the current study, the investigators utilized the Partners HealthCare System Research Patient Data Registry, which includes demographic and diagnostic information on patients treated at MGH and Brigham and Women's Hospital.
Their analysis of data from patients treated over an 11-year period revealed that almost 2.9 percent of HIV patients were diagnosed with fractures of the hip, spine or wrist, while fracture prevalence was only 1.8 percent in non-HIV-infected patients. HIV-associated increases in fracture rates were seen in both men – 3 percent versus 1.8 percent – and women – 2.5 percent versus 1.7 percent; and the increased risk was even more pronounced in older patients.
"These data indicate that we should screen HIV-infected patients, both men and women, for low bone density as they age." Grinspoon says. "We also need to learn more about the mechanisms of this bone loss – whether antiviral drugs, the virus itself, or other metabolic factors are responsible – and investigate specific fracture rates for women before and after menopause." Grinspoon is a professor of Medicine at Harvard Medical School.
Genetic differences between strains of Epstein-Barr virus can alter its activity
18.07.2019 | University of Sussex
Machine learning platform guides pancreatic cyst management in patients
18.07.2019 | American Association for the Advancement of Science
Adjusting the thermal conductivity of materials is one of the challenges nanoscience is currently facing. Together with colleagues from the Netherlands and Spain, researchers from the University of Basel have shown that the atomic vibrations that determine heat generation in nanowires can be controlled through the arrangement of atoms alone. The scientists will publish the results shortly in the journal Nano Letters.
In the electronics and computer industry, components are becoming ever smaller and more powerful. However, there are problems with the heat generation. It is...
Scientists have visualised the electronic structure in a microelectronic device for the first time, opening up opportunities for finely-tuned high performance electronic devices.
Physicists from the University of Warwick and the University of Washington have developed a technique to measure the energy and momentum of electrons in...
Scientists at the University Würzburg and University Hospital of Würzburg found that megakaryocytes act as “bouncers” and thus modulate bone marrow niche properties and cell migration dynamics. The study was published in July in the Journal “Haematologica”.
Hematopoiesis is the process of forming blood cells, which occurs predominantly in the bone marrow. The bone marrow produces all types of blood cells: red...
For some phenomena in quantum many-body physics several competing theories exist. But which of them describes a quantum phenomenon best? A team of researchers from the Technical University of Munich (TUM) and Harvard University in the United States has now successfully deployed artificial neural networks for image analysis of quantum systems.
Is that a dog or a cat? Such a classification is a prime example of machine learning: artificial neural networks can be trained to analyze images by looking...
An international research group led by scientists from the University of Bayreuth has produced a previously unknown material: Rhenium nitride pernitride. Thanks to combining properties that were previously considered incompatible, it looks set to become highly attractive for technological applications. Indeed, it is a super-hard metallic conductor that can withstand extremely high pressures like a diamond. A process now developed in Bayreuth opens up the possibility of producing rhenium nitride pernitride and other technologically interesting materials in sufficiently large quantity for their properties characterisation. The new findings are presented in "Nature Communications".
The possibility of finding a compound that was metallically conductive, super-hard, and ultra-incompressible was long considered unlikely in science. It was...
24.06.2019 | Event News
29.04.2019 | Event News
17.04.2019 | Event News
19.07.2019 | Physics and Astronomy
19.07.2019 | Physics and Astronomy
19.07.2019 | Earth Sciences