An Emory-led team of scientists has discovered one important way in which chronic viral infections are able to evade the immune response. The research is reported this week online in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.
Using a mouse model, the scientists found that a chronic strain of lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) targeted a type of stromal cells in the lymphoid organs called fibroblastic reticular cells (FRC). In contrast, an acute strain of the virus had little effect on the FRC cells. FRC provide a three-dimensional framework used by immune cells to travel and interact with other immune cells within the lymphoid organs (spleen and lymph nodes). These FRC are important for the initiation of immune responses to infections. The researchers found that widespread infection of the FRC caused a disruption of the function of these important stromal cells.
Last year a group of Emory scientists led by Rafi Ahmed, PhD, and graduate student Daniel Barber and their colleagues discovered in mice another way in which the immune reaction to chronic infections is blocked -- a pathway called PD-1 that blocked the response to the chronic strain of LCMV.
The current research was conducted by Scott N. Mueller, PhD, a postdoctoral fellow in the laboratory of Dr. Ahmed, a Georgia Research Alliance Eminent Scholar and director of the Emory Vaccine Center. The team also included scientists from the Emory Transplant Center and Emory School of Medicine, the University of California, San Francisco (UCSF), the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA), Harvard Medical School and the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute.
The research team discovered that infection of FRC may involve the previously discovered PD-1 pathway. The major ligand (binding molecule) for PD-1, PD-L1, is upregulated on FRC after infection. The PD-1 pathway may inhibit interactions between CD8+ T cells and FRC, preventing destruction of the FRC architecture in the spleen. This may help the virus to remain in infected FRC and contribute to long-term viral persistence.
"This research helps explain how the T-cell response can be suppressed in chronic viral infections," says Dr. Mueller. "As we learn more about the intricate mechanisms involved we will be able to develop better treatments, and potentially preventive vaccines, for chronic infections such as those caused by HIV and hepatitis C viruses."
Holly Korschun | EurekAlert!
Using fragment-based approaches to discover new antibiotics
21.06.2018 | SLAS (Society for Laboratory Automation and Screening)
Scientists learn more about how gene linked to autism affects brain
19.06.2018 | Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center
In a recent publication in the renowned journal Optica, scientists of Leibniz-Institute of Photonic Technology (Leibniz IPHT) in Jena showed that they can accurately control the optical properties of liquid-core fiber lasers and therefore their spectral band width by temperature and pressure tuning.
Already last year, the researchers provided experimental proof of a new dynamic of hybrid solitons– temporally and spectrally stationary light waves resulting...
Scientists from the University of Freiburg and the University of Basel identified a master regulator for bone regeneration. Prasad Shastri, Professor of...
Moving into its fourth decade, AchemAsia is setting out for new horizons: The International Expo and Innovation Forum for Sustainable Chemical Production will take place from 21-23 May 2019 in Shanghai, China. With an updated event profile, the eleventh edition focusses on topics that are especially relevant for the Chinese process industry, putting a strong emphasis on sustainability and innovation.
Founded in 1989 as a spin-off of ACHEMA to cater to the needs of China’s then developing industry, AchemAsia has since grown into a platform where the latest...
The BMBF-funded OWICELLS project was successfully completed with a final presentation at the BMW plant in Munich. The presentation demonstrated a Li-Fi communication with a mobile robot, while the robot carried out usual production processes (welding, moving and testing parts) in a 5x5m² production cell. The robust, optical wireless transmission is based on spatial diversity; in other words, data is sent and received simultaneously by several LEDs and several photodiodes. The system can transmit data at more than 100 Mbit/s and five milliseconds latency.
Modern production technologies in the automobile industry must become more flexible in order to fulfil individual customer requirements.
An international team of scientists has discovered a new way to transfer image information through multimodal fibers with almost no distortion - even if the fiber is bent. The results of the study, to which scientist from the Leibniz-Institute of Photonic Technology Jena (Leibniz IPHT) contributed, were published on 6thJune in the highly-cited journal Physical Review Letters.
Endoscopes allow doctors to see into a patient’s body like through a keyhole. Typically, the images are transmitted via a bundle of several hundreds of optical...
13.06.2018 | Event News
08.06.2018 | Event News
05.06.2018 | Event News
22.06.2018 | Materials Sciences
22.06.2018 | Earth Sciences
22.06.2018 | Life Sciences