New drug could soon thwart smallpox outbreaks
A smallpox pill could help stem an outbreak quickly.
An anti-smallpox pill could be on the way if a new compound that shows promise in animal tests proves safe and effective in humans. Such a pill could provide the best method for controlling an unforeseen smallpox outbreak, its developers claim.
The need for new ways to treat smallpox has only become an issue in recent years as the threat of a deliberate release of the virus intensifies. Smallpox - a highly contagious and often lethal viral disease - was officially eradicated by vaccination in 1979.
"We disguised cidofovir so the body thinks its a dietary fat," Hostetler explains. His team attached to cidofivirs active component a molecule called lecithin, a breakdown product of fat found in all foods. This Trojan horse approach tricks the body into absorbing the drug and carrying it to where it is needed.
Small doses of the new compound - called HDP-CDV - killed the virus in smallpox-infected cells. "The big surprise was that its antiviral activity went up 100-fold compared to cidofovir," says Hostetler.
A single, daily dose of the drug also cured mice of cowpox, Huggins found. Untreated mice died within days.
Whats more, cowpox was undetectable in the respiratory tracts of mice treated with HDP-CDV. Because smallpox is spread by infectious droplets that are coughed up, this finding suggests that HDP-CDV might help to stem an epidemic.
These early tests raise hope that HDP-CDV might be incorporated into an anti-smallpox pill that could be distributed widely without the need for public-health workers to administer it, says Hostetler.
"But there is tons of work left to do," he warns. Even though the new compound is based on an existing drug, it must undergo the same rigorous testing as any other. The team dont expect that process to begin for at least another year.
The possibility of an effective drug for smallpox is likely to fuel the debate among smallpox experts about the best way to control a future outbreak. Many prominent scientists argue that antiviral drugs such as cidofivir shouldnt play a prominent role.
Antivirals may save lives and perhaps reduce transmission, but they do not confer immunity to the disease, as vaccines do, the argument goes.
Donald Henderson, head of George W. Bushs newly created Office of Public Health Preparedness, is a prominent sceptic. The use of cidofovir "would be limited to administration at or shortly after infection had occurred to prevent the virus from multiplying and eventually causing disease", he says.
Antiviral drugs would best be used to treat people who cant be vaccinated, says Henderson. Those with weak immune systems can suffer adverse, even fatal, reactions to smallpox vaccine.
Joseph Esposito, a poxvirus specialist at the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in Atlanta, Georgia, agrees: "A new drug would be very important." But in terms of a national strategy, "the first line of defence is a proven one, and thats vaccination," he says.
But while questions loom about the number of smallpox vaccine doses available to limit an outbreak, and about the possibility of a smallpox virus being engineered that can outwit existing vaccines, antivirals deserve a fair trail, says Hostetler.
TOM CLARKE | © Nature News Service
Inselspital: Fewer CT scans needed after cerebral bleeding
20.03.2019 | Universitätsspital Bern
Building blocks for new medications: the University of Graz is seeking a technology partner
19.03.2019 | Karl-Franzens-Universität Graz
DESY and MPSD scientists create high-order harmonics from solids with controlled polarization states, taking advantage of both crystal symmetry and attosecond electronic dynamics. The newly demonstrated technique might find intriguing applications in petahertz electronics and for spectroscopic studies of novel quantum materials.
The nonlinear process of high-order harmonic generation (HHG) in gases is one of the cornerstones of attosecond science (an attosecond is a billionth of a...
Nano- and microtechnology are promising candidates not only for medical applications such as drug delivery but also for the creation of little robots or flexible integrated sensors. Scientists from the Max Planck Institute for Polymer Research (MPI-P) have created magnetic microparticles, with a newly developed method, that could pave the way for building micro-motors or guiding drugs in the human body to a target, like a tumor. The preparation of such structures as well as their remote-control can be regulated using magnetic fields and therefore can find application in an array of domains.
The magnetic properties of a material control how this material responds to the presence of a magnetic field. Iron oxide is the main component of rust but also...
Due to the special arrangement of its molecules, a new coating made of corn starch is able to repair small scratches by itself through heat: The cross-linking via ring-shaped molecules makes the material mobile, so that it compensates for the scratches and these disappear again.
Superficial micro-scratches on the car body or on other high-gloss surfaces are harmless, but annoying. Especially in the luxury segment such surfaces are...
The Potsdam Echelle Polarimetric and Spectroscopic Instrument (PEPSI) at the Large Binocular Telescope (LBT) in Arizona released its first image of the surface magnetic field of another star. In a paper in the European journal Astronomy & Astrophysics, the PEPSI team presents a Zeeman- Doppler-Image of the surface of the magnetically active star II Pegasi.
A special technique allows astronomers to resolve the surfaces of faraway stars. Those are otherwise only seen as point sources, even in the largest telescopes...
Researchers at Chalmers University of Technology and the University of Gothenburg, Sweden, have proposed a way to create a completely new source of radiation. Ultra-intense light pulses consist of the motion of a single wave and can be described as a tsunami of light. The strong wave can be used to study interactions between matter and light in a unique way. Their research is now published in the scientific journal Physical Review Letters.
"This source of radiation lets us look at reality through a new angle - it is like twisting a mirror and discovering something completely different," says...
11.03.2019 | Event News
01.03.2019 | Event News
28.02.2019 | Event News
25.03.2019 | Trade Fair News
25.03.2019 | Life Sciences
25.03.2019 | Information Technology