What is bronchiolitis?
Bronchiolitis is the most common severe lower respiratory infection in infants. It occurs when a viral infection causes infants’ lower airways to become inflamed. They have difficulty breathing, sleeping and feeding.
What is its incidence?
Bronchiolitis affects 10-20% of infants under the age of two. Three percent of these are admitted to hospital, meaning that around 1.8 million infants are taken to US hospitals each year. Of these, 2.7% need intensive care, 1.5% need ventilation and 0.2% die.
If there is no respiratory distress, feeding difficulties or specific risk factors, the infant can be treated at home with advice on when to return for re-assessment. If there are respiratory problems infants should be hospitalized and clinical treatment is normally limited to ensuring the infant is given adequate fluids, and oxygen. This can allow time for the infant to recover. Nebulised epinephrine may produce marginal relief, and could help some infants go home. The effect, however, is mild.
Various treatments have been tried in patients who are more severely affected, but none produce any marked effects. Bronchodilators and epinephrine produce no benefits, though some people suggest they may reduce restlessness and sleeplessness. Similarly, neither injecting steroids or immunoglobulins, nor giving vibration or percussive physiotherapy reduces symptoms.
A clear need for research
“What we need is a large randomised trial that carefully studies all of the currently available therapies and sees whether adjusting dose, type or frequency of treatment can produce greater benefit – then we need to examine new-comers,” says Dr. Michael Smith, author of the review, who works in the Department of Paediatrics, Craigavon Area Group Hospital Trust, Craigavon, Northern Ireland.
Evidence-Based Child Health: A Cochrane Review Journal is available online via Wiley InterScience, the online content service at: www.evidence-basedchildhealth.com
Polly Young | alfa
Purdue cancer identity technology makes it easier to find a tumor's 'address'
16.11.2018 | Purdue University
Microgel powder fights infection and helps wounds heal
14.11.2018 | Michigan Technological University
Researchers at the University of New Hampshire have captured a difficult-to-view singular event involving "magnetic reconnection"--the process by which sparse particles and energy around Earth collide producing a quick but mighty explosion--in the Earth's magnetotail, the magnetic environment that trails behind the planet.
Magnetic reconnection has remained a bit of a mystery to scientists. They know it exists and have documented the effects that the energy explosions can...
Biochips have been developed at TU Wien (Vienna), on which tissue can be produced and examined. This allows supplying the tissue with different substances in a very controlled way.
Cultivating human cells in the Petri dish is not a big challenge today. Producing artificial tissue, however, permeated by fine blood vessels, is a much more...
Faster and secure data communication: This is the goal of a new joint project involving physicists from the University of Würzburg. The German Federal Ministry of Education and Research funds the project with 14.8 million euro.
In our digital world data security and secure communication are becoming more and more important. Quantum communication is a promising approach to achieve...
On Saturday, 10 November 2018, the research icebreaker Polarstern will leave its homeport of Bremerhaven, bound for Cape Town, South Africa.
When choosing materials to make something, trade-offs need to be made between a host of properties, such as thickness, stiffness and weight. Depending on the application in question, finding just the right balance is the difference between success and failure
Now, a team of Penn Engineers has demonstrated a new material they call "nanocardboard," an ultrathin equivalent of corrugated paper cardboard. A square...
09.11.2018 | Event News
06.11.2018 | Event News
23.10.2018 | Event News
16.11.2018 | Health and Medicine
16.11.2018 | Life Sciences
16.11.2018 | Life Sciences