The prevalence of childhood asthma and wheeze rises around 2 to 3 per cent for every indoor swimming pool per 100,000 of the population across Europe, indicates research published ahead of print in Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
The researchers analysed the rates of wheezing, asthma, hay fever, allergic rhinitis, and atopic eczema, reported in the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC), by video or written questionnaire.
The study involved almost 190,000 young teenagers (13 and 14 year olds) from 21 countries across Europe.
These figures were then set in the context of the number of indoor chlorinated swimming pools per 100,000 of the population in each of the countries.
The number of indoor pools varied by a factor of 20 between Eastern and Western Europe, ranging from one pool for every 50,000 inhabitants in Western Europe to one for every 300,000 inhabitants in Eastern Europe.
The number of indoor pools also varied fivefold within individual countries, including Italy, Spain, and the UK.
After taking account of potential influential factors, such as the gross domestic product (GDP) of a country, climate, and altitude, the prevalence of asthma and wheeze was strongly associated with the number of indoor pools per 100,000 of the population.
The findings showed a clear East-West divide in indoor pool availability and rates of asthma.
The rate of wheezing rose by 3.39 per cent for every additional indoor chlorinated swimming pool. Similarly, the rate of asthma rose by 2.73 per cent.
The authors conclude that the rise of asthma in Western Europe could at least partly be attributed to the increasing exposure of children to the by-products of chlorine in the air and water of indoor swimming pools.
They suggest that the long term effects of chlorine by-products on children's respiratory health should be thoroughly evaluated, and that pools should be properly ventilated and levels of chlorine by-products regulated.
Emma Dickinson | EurekAlert!
Foods of the future
15.08.2018 | Georg-August-Universität Göttingen
New antibody analysis accelerates rational vaccine design
09.08.2018 | Scripps Research Institute
Scientists at the University of California, Los Angeles present new research on a curious cosmic phenomenon known as "whistlers" -- very low frequency packets...
Scientists develop first tool to use machine learning methods to compute flow around interactively designable 3D objects. Tool will be presented at this year’s prestigious SIGGRAPH conference.
When engineers or designers want to test the aerodynamic properties of the newly designed shape of a car, airplane, or other object, they would normally model...
Researchers from TU Graz and their industry partners have unveiled a world first: the prototype of a robot-controlled, high-speed combined charging system (CCS) for electric vehicles that enables series charging of cars in various parking positions.
Global demand for electric vehicles is forecast to rise sharply: by 2025, the number of new vehicle registrations is expected to reach 25 million per year....
Proteins must be folded correctly to fulfill their molecular functions in cells. Molecular assistants called chaperones help proteins exploit their inbuilt folding potential and reach the correct three-dimensional structure. Researchers at the Max Planck Institute of Biochemistry (MPIB) have demonstrated that actin, the most abundant protein in higher developed cells, does not have the inbuilt potential to fold and instead requires special assistance to fold into its active state. The chaperone TRiC uses a previously undescribed mechanism to perform actin folding. The study was recently published in the journal Cell.
Actin is the most abundant protein in highly developed cells and has diverse functions in processes like cell stabilization, cell division and muscle...
Scientists have discovered that the electrical resistance of a copper-oxide compound depends on the magnetic field in a very unusual way -- a finding that could help direct the search for materials that can perfectly conduct electricity at room temperatur
What happens when really powerful magnets--capable of producing magnetic fields nearly two million times stronger than Earth's--are applied to materials that...
08.08.2018 | Event News
27.07.2018 | Event News
25.07.2018 | Event News
15.08.2018 | Physics and Astronomy
15.08.2018 | Earth Sciences
15.08.2018 | Physics and Astronomy