Between 8 and 12 million Americans are affected by peripheral arterial disease, or PAD, where the arteries that bring blood to the legs are blocked by atherosclerotic plaque. The incidence of PAD is expected to rise in coming decades as the population ages, one reason its vital to develop new methods to diagnose the severity of PAD and develop new drugs to treat it.
By examining the physiology of patients who exercised under a magnetic resonance imaging scanner (MRI), doctors at the University of Virginia Health System have devised a new test to diagnose and follow peripheral arterial disease. This test shows promise in helping drug companies test new PAD medications and, perhaps in the near future, may give doctors the ability to tell which patients are at risk for developing PAD-related complications and require stenting, bypass surgery or even amputation of a leg.
A UVa cardiologist, Dr. Christopher Kramer, and his colleagues, measured how fast the leg muscles of patients with PAD, and people without PAD, recovered a phosphorus substance called phosphocreatine (PCr), the major energy "store" in muscle cells. Tests at UVa on 20 patients with mild to moderate PAD and 14 people without PAD, showed that the median time to recover phosphocreatine at the end of exercise in PAD patients was three times slower, 91 seconds in the PAD group versus 35 seconds in the normal group.
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For the first time ever, scientists have determined the cosmic origin of highest-energy neutrinos. A research group led by IceCube scientist Elisa Resconi, spokesperson of the Collaborative Research Center SFB1258 at the Technical University of Munich (TUM), provides an important piece of evidence that the particles detected by the IceCube neutrino telescope at the South Pole originate from a galaxy four billion light-years away from Earth.
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Physicists working with Roland Wester at the University of Innsbruck have investigated if and how chemical reactions can be influenced by targeted vibrational excitation of the reactants. They were able to demonstrate that excitation with a laser beam does not affect the efficiency of a chemical exchange reaction and that the excited molecular group acts only as a spectator in the reaction.
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Optical spectroscopy allows investigating the energy structure and dynamic properties of complex quantum systems. Researchers from the University of Würzburg present two new approaches of coherent two-dimensional spectroscopy.
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Ultra-short, high-intensity X-ray flashes open the door to the foundations of chemical reactions. Free-electron lasers generate these kinds of pulses, but there is a catch: the pulses vary in duration and energy. An international research team has now presented a solution: Using a ring of 16 detectors and a circularly polarized laser beam, they can determine both factors with attosecond accuracy.
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