Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Radiation zaps bystanders

04.12.2001


Radon causes about 17,000 cases of lung cancer in the US each year.
© SPL


Radon may pose a greater cancer threat than has been thought.

Radon damage from irradiated cells spreads to their neighbours, a new study finds1. The result suggests that small amounts of this radioactive gas could cause widespread harm.

The study "is a reason for concern but not panic", says Gerhard Randers-Pehrson of Columbia University, New York, a member of the team that performed the study. "We’re talking about the acceptable level of radon changing perhaps by a factor of two, not 100."



Even this change could mean many more houses currently on the borderline of acceptable limits needing attention. Decaying uranium in granite rocks and soil releases radon.

Where there is a lot of granite, such as in the US Appalachian region, radon dissolved in water can seep through cracks in basement floors to produce potentially dangerous concentrations in homes. Ventilation and filling cracks in basement floors and walls can cut radon levels.

The results so far are for cells in culture. Radon exposure might not have the same effect on bodies, cautions Barry Michael of the Gray Cancer Institute in London. "The mix of cell types in living organisms might lead to a very different picture," he says.

Radon causes about 17,000 lung cancer cases in the United States each year, according to the US National Cancer Institute. Radioactive particles emitted by inhaled radon break DNA in cells, causing mutations that can lead to cancer.

Most estimates of the risk from low-level radon exposure are made by measuring cancer in people exposed to high radon levels, such as uranium mineworkers. Experts tend to assume that a person who receives half as much radiation as another, for example, has half the risk.

But irradiating just 10% of the cells in a culture resulted in nearly as many mutations irradiating them all, the Columbia found. Many cells not directly hit showed mutations, suggesting that simple extrapolation may underestimate the risk of a low dose of radon.

"It seems that when a cell is irradiated, it sends a signal to neighbour cells that causes them to get damaged too," says Randers-Peterson. "We don’t know why this happens."

Michael’s studies, on the other hand, have found that neighbouring cells cause irradiated cells to age, so that they die before becoming cancerous. "We need more research to understand the balance between damaging and protective impacts of low-dose irradiation," he says.

Further study is needed, agrees Randers-Pehrson. But he thinks that health experts should take note of his findings. "The reason we were doing this experiment was to help decide what kind of level is dangerous," he says.

References

  1. Zhou, H. et al. Radiation risk to low fluences of alpha particles may be greater than we thought. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 98, 14410 - 14415, (2001).

ERICA KLARREICH | © Nature News Service
Further information:
http://www.nature.com/nsu/011206/011206-7.html

More articles from Health and Medicine:

nachricht Safer viruses for vaccine research and diagnosis
12.12.2019 | University of Queensland

nachricht Illinois team develops first of a kind in-vitro 3D neural tissue model
11.12.2019 | University of Illinois College of Engineering

All articles from Health and Medicine >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Highly charged ion paves the way towards new physics

In a joint experimental and theoretical work performed at the Heidelberg Max Planck Institute for Nuclear Physics, an international team of physicists detected for the first time an orbital crossing in the highly charged ion Pr⁹⁺. Optical spectra were recorded employing an electron beam ion trap and analysed with the aid of atomic structure calculations. A proposed nHz-wide transition has been identified and its energy was determined with high precision. Theory predicts a very high sensitivity to new physics and extremely low susceptibility to external perturbations for this “clock line” making it a unique candidate for proposed precision studies.

Laser spectroscopy of neutral atoms and singly charged ions has reached astonishing precision by merit of a chain of technological advances during the past...

Im Focus: Ultrafast stimulated emission microscopy of single nanocrystals in Science

The ability to investigate the dynamics of single particle at the nano-scale and femtosecond level remained an unfathomed dream for years. It was not until the dawn of the 21st century that nanotechnology and femtoscience gradually merged together and the first ultrafast microscopy of individual quantum dots (QDs) and molecules was accomplished.

Ultrafast microscopy studies entirely rely on detecting nanoparticles or single molecules with luminescence techniques, which require efficient emitters to...

Im Focus: How to induce magnetism in graphene

Graphene, a two-dimensional structure made of carbon, is a material with excellent mechanical, electronic and optical properties. However, it did not seem suitable for magnetic applications. Together with international partners, Empa researchers have now succeeded in synthesizing a unique nanographene predicted in the 1970s, which conclusively demonstrates that carbon in very specific forms has magnetic properties that could permit future spintronic applications. The results have just been published in the renowned journal Nature Nanotechnology.

Depending on the shape and orientation of their edges, graphene nanostructures (also known as nanographenes) can have very different properties – for example,...

Im Focus: Electronic map reveals 'rules of the road' in superconductor

Band structure map exposes iron selenide's enigmatic electronic signature

Using a clever technique that causes unruly crystals of iron selenide to snap into alignment, Rice University physicists have drawn a detailed map that reveals...

Im Focus: Developing a digital twin

University of Texas and MIT researchers create virtual UAVs that can predict vehicle health, enable autonomous decision-making

In the not too distant future, we can expect to see our skies filled with unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) delivering packages, maybe even people, from location...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

VideoLinks
Industry & Economy
Event News

The Future of Work

03.12.2019 | Event News

First International Conference on Agrophotovoltaics in August 2020

15.11.2019 | Event News

Laser Symposium on Electromobility in Aachen: trends for the mobility revolution

15.11.2019 | Event News

 
Latest News

Safer viruses for vaccine research and diagnosis

12.12.2019 | Health and Medicine

NTU Singapore scientists convert plastics into useful chemicals using su

12.12.2019 | Life Sciences

Studies show integrated strategies work best for buffelgrass control

12.12.2019 | Agricultural and Forestry Science

VideoLinks
Science & Research
Overview of more VideoLinks >>>