A decreased ability to repair chromosomal damage caused by exposure to ultraviolet B (UV-B) radiation in test tubes may be associated with an increased risk of the common skin cancers basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma, but not of melanoma, according to a study in the December 21 issue of the Journal of the National Cancer Institute.
Exposure to UV radiation from sunlight is a risk factor for the two most common skin cancers, basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma, and for the less common and potentially lethal skin cancer cutaneous malignant melanoma. UV-B radiation can cause strands of DNA to break in sun-exposed skin or skin cells. People with a condition called xeroderma pigmentosum are at a very high risk of sunlight-induced skin cancer because their cells are unable to repair these kinds of DNA and chromosomal damage. However, scientists did not know if the frequency of UV-B induced chromatid breaks, an indirect estimate of DNA repair capacity, is a risk factor for skin cancer in the general population.
Li-E Wang, M.D., and Qingyi Wei, M.D., Ph.D., of the University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center in Houston, and colleagues set out to answer this question by studying 469 patients with both melanoma or nonmelanoma skin cancers and 329 cancer-free patients. They took blood samples from all of the patients and then measured the number of chromatid breaks in the patients cells 24 hours after the blood samples were exposed to UV-B radiation.
Unique brain 'fingerprint' can predict drug effectiveness
11.07.2018 | McGill University
Direct conversion of non-neuronal cells into nerve cells
03.07.2018 | Universitätsmedizin der Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz
For the first time ever, scientists have determined the cosmic origin of highest-energy neutrinos. A research group led by IceCube scientist Elisa Resconi, spokesperson of the Collaborative Research Center SFB1258 at the Technical University of Munich (TUM), provides an important piece of evidence that the particles detected by the IceCube neutrino telescope at the South Pole originate from a galaxy four billion light-years away from Earth.
To rule out other origins with certainty, the team led by neutrino physicist Elisa Resconi from the Technical University of Munich and multi-wavelength...
For the first time a team of researchers have discovered two different phases of magnetic skyrmions in a single material. Physicists of the Technical Universities of Munich and Dresden and the University of Cologne can now better study and understand the properties of these magnetic structures, which are important for both basic research and applications.
Whirlpools are an everyday experience in a bath tub: When the water is drained a circular vortex is formed. Typically, such whirls are rather stable. Similar...
Physicists working with Roland Wester at the University of Innsbruck have investigated if and how chemical reactions can be influenced by targeted vibrational excitation of the reactants. They were able to demonstrate that excitation with a laser beam does not affect the efficiency of a chemical exchange reaction and that the excited molecular group acts only as a spectator in the reaction.
A frequently used reaction in organic chemistry is nucleophilic substitution. It plays, for example, an important role in in the synthesis of new chemical...
Optical spectroscopy allows investigating the energy structure and dynamic properties of complex quantum systems. Researchers from the University of Würzburg present two new approaches of coherent two-dimensional spectroscopy.
"Put an excitation into the system and observe how it evolves." According to physicist Professor Tobias Brixner, this is the credo of optical spectroscopy....
Ultra-short, high-intensity X-ray flashes open the door to the foundations of chemical reactions. Free-electron lasers generate these kinds of pulses, but there is a catch: the pulses vary in duration and energy. An international research team has now presented a solution: Using a ring of 16 detectors and a circularly polarized laser beam, they can determine both factors with attosecond accuracy.
Free-electron lasers (FELs) generate extremely short and intense X-ray flashes. Researchers can use these flashes to resolve structures with diameters on the...
13.07.2018 | Event News
12.07.2018 | Event News
03.07.2018 | Event News
16.07.2018 | Physics and Astronomy
16.07.2018 | Life Sciences
16.07.2018 | Earth Sciences