A new drug is demonstrating impressive results in the fight against malaria, according to a forthcoming paper in the open access journal PLoS Medicine. The study of a malaria control program in South Africa shows how hospital admissions for malaria were dramatically reduced following the introduction of an antimalarial combination called artemether-lumefantrine (AL) and the partial reintroduction of the insecticide DDT. The malaria epidemic has been particularly resurgent in recent years as the parasites transmitting the disease have developed resistance to many of the existing drugs. Approximately a million people are killed by malaria every year, predominantly in Africa. KwaZulu-Natal was the first Ministry of Health in Africa to introduce an artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) malaria treatment policy.
Caption: Mosquito control and ACT are both likely contributors to the reduction of malaria in KwaZulu¡VNatal. (Photo: Karen Barnes and Atis Muelenbachs)
Karen Barnes and colleagues describe and evaluate the new measures against malaria put in place in the KwaZulu-Natal province, where cases had risen fifteen-fold during the 1990s. AL was introduced to the area in 2000 alongside an intensified effort to control mosquitoes with insecticides. Reviewing data from four health care facilities representative of the province, the researchers found that admissions for malaria had declined by 89% in the year following the changes. By 2003 the decline in malaria had been sustained throughout the province: outpatient cases fell by 99% and malaria-related deaths had decreased by 97%.
The authors are keen to stress the vital importance of a health care infrastructure that can deliver prompt diagnosis, as well as perceptions within the community that treatment for malaria should be sought urgently and completed at public-health care facilities. These favourable factors combined with better control of mosquitoes, including the use of DDT for reed and mud homesteads, maximized the benefits of AL treatment in Africa. It makes KwaZulu-Natal an encouraging example of how to combat malaria following its dramatic and deadly increase.
Paul Ocampo | EurekAlert!
Unique brain 'fingerprint' can predict drug effectiveness
11.07.2018 | McGill University
Direct conversion of non-neuronal cells into nerve cells
03.07.2018 | Universitätsmedizin der Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz
For the first time ever, scientists have determined the cosmic origin of highest-energy neutrinos. A research group led by IceCube scientist Elisa Resconi, spokesperson of the Collaborative Research Center SFB1258 at the Technical University of Munich (TUM), provides an important piece of evidence that the particles detected by the IceCube neutrino telescope at the South Pole originate from a galaxy four billion light-years away from Earth.
To rule out other origins with certainty, the team led by neutrino physicist Elisa Resconi from the Technical University of Munich and multi-wavelength...
For the first time a team of researchers have discovered two different phases of magnetic skyrmions in a single material. Physicists of the Technical Universities of Munich and Dresden and the University of Cologne can now better study and understand the properties of these magnetic structures, which are important for both basic research and applications.
Whirlpools are an everyday experience in a bath tub: When the water is drained a circular vortex is formed. Typically, such whirls are rather stable. Similar...
Physicists working with Roland Wester at the University of Innsbruck have investigated if and how chemical reactions can be influenced by targeted vibrational excitation of the reactants. They were able to demonstrate that excitation with a laser beam does not affect the efficiency of a chemical exchange reaction and that the excited molecular group acts only as a spectator in the reaction.
A frequently used reaction in organic chemistry is nucleophilic substitution. It plays, for example, an important role in in the synthesis of new chemical...
Optical spectroscopy allows investigating the energy structure and dynamic properties of complex quantum systems. Researchers from the University of Würzburg present two new approaches of coherent two-dimensional spectroscopy.
"Put an excitation into the system and observe how it evolves." According to physicist Professor Tobias Brixner, this is the credo of optical spectroscopy....
Ultra-short, high-intensity X-ray flashes open the door to the foundations of chemical reactions. Free-electron lasers generate these kinds of pulses, but there is a catch: the pulses vary in duration and energy. An international research team has now presented a solution: Using a ring of 16 detectors and a circularly polarized laser beam, they can determine both factors with attosecond accuracy.
Free-electron lasers (FELs) generate extremely short and intense X-ray flashes. Researchers can use these flashes to resolve structures with diameters on the...
13.07.2018 | Event News
12.07.2018 | Event News
03.07.2018 | Event News
13.07.2018 | Event News
13.07.2018 | Materials Sciences
13.07.2018 | Life Sciences