Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Running not swimming or biking is best kind of loading exercise for childrens bone growth

06.10.2004


Mechanical loading through exercise builds bone strength and this effect is most pronounced during skeletal growth and development, according to Charles H. Turner, professor in the Department of Orthopaedic Surgery and director of orthopaedic research at the Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis.



Exercise that puts the “best” kind of mechanical load to strengthen bones, especially during childhood and adolescence, Turner says, involves impact or high rates of load such as running or jumping, as opposed to swimming or biking. Growing bones are most responsive to the strengthening effects of running/jumping, which have the additional benefit that these types of exercise don’t affect longitudinal growth, Turner says.

Activities like “serious weight-lifting, however, aren’t recommended for children because overloading growing joints can stunt longitudinal bone growth,” and consequently stunt overall limb growth and height, he adds.


Turner says that the strengthening effect of exercise is very efficient because the cellular mechanosensors within bone direct osteogenesis (new bone growth) to where it is most needed to improve bone strength and hence bone mass.

Mechanosensors, desensitization under study

Though the cellular mechanosensors are very efficient, Turner noted that the biological processes involved in bone mechanotransduction are poorly understood, “yet several pathways are emerging from current research.” These include ion channels in the cell membrane, ATP (adenosine triphosphate) signaling, and second messengers such as prostaglandins and nitric oxide. Specific targets of mechanical loading include the L-type calcium channel (alpha 1C isoform), a gadolinium-sensitive stretch-activated channel, P2Y2 and P2X7 purinergic receptors, EP2 and EP4 prostanoid receptors, and the parathyroid hormone receptors.

“One characteristic of the mechanosensing apparatus that has only recently been studied is the important role of desensitization,” Turner notes. “Experimental protocols that insert ‘rest’ periods to reduce the effects of desensitization can double anabolic responses to mechanical loading,” he adds. Again, it’s unclear how desensitization of bone cells occur, but it’s an area ripe for further study.

A recent paper with his colleague, Alexander G. Robling, “Designing exercise regimens to increase bone strength,” dealt with desensitization and age-related effects of exercise, among many other topics, including development of an exercise “osteogenic index” or OI. The paper appeared in the “Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews.” Among the OI observations were: (1) “short intense exercise bouts build bone most effectively, hence short sprints should build more bone than a long jog,” (2) “OI is best improved by adding more exercise sessions per week rather than lengthening the duration of individual sessions,” (3) “to reduce exercise time, it is far better to shorten each session than to reduce the number of sessions,” and (4) “the osteogenic potential of exercise can be increased further when daily exercise is divided into two shorter sessions separated by 8 hours.”

Mayer Resnick | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.the-aps.org

More articles from Health and Medicine:

nachricht Foods of the future
15.08.2018 | Georg-August-Universität Göttingen

nachricht New antibody analysis accelerates rational vaccine design
09.08.2018 | Scripps Research Institute

All articles from Health and Medicine >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Unraveling the nature of 'whistlers' from space in the lab

A new study sheds light on how ultralow frequency radio waves and plasmas interact

Scientists at the University of California, Los Angeles present new research on a curious cosmic phenomenon known as "whistlers" -- very low frequency packets...

Im Focus: New interactive machine learning tool makes car designs more aerodynamic

Scientists develop first tool to use machine learning methods to compute flow around interactively designable 3D objects. Tool will be presented at this year’s prestigious SIGGRAPH conference.

When engineers or designers want to test the aerodynamic properties of the newly designed shape of a car, airplane, or other object, they would normally model...

Im Focus: Robots as 'pump attendants': TU Graz develops robot-controlled rapid charging system for e-vehicles

Researchers from TU Graz and their industry partners have unveiled a world first: the prototype of a robot-controlled, high-speed combined charging system (CCS) for electric vehicles that enables series charging of cars in various parking positions.

Global demand for electric vehicles is forecast to rise sharply: by 2025, the number of new vehicle registrations is expected to reach 25 million per year....

Im Focus: The “TRiC” to folding actin

Proteins must be folded correctly to fulfill their molecular functions in cells. Molecular assistants called chaperones help proteins exploit their inbuilt folding potential and reach the correct three-dimensional structure. Researchers at the Max Planck Institute of Biochemistry (MPIB) have demonstrated that actin, the most abundant protein in higher developed cells, does not have the inbuilt potential to fold and instead requires special assistance to fold into its active state. The chaperone TRiC uses a previously undescribed mechanism to perform actin folding. The study was recently published in the journal Cell.

Actin is the most abundant protein in highly developed cells and has diverse functions in processes like cell stabilization, cell division and muscle...

Im Focus: Lining up surprising behaviors of superconductor with one of the world's strongest magnets

Scientists have discovered that the electrical resistance of a copper-oxide compound depends on the magnetic field in a very unusual way -- a finding that could help direct the search for materials that can perfectly conduct electricity at room temperatur

What happens when really powerful magnets--capable of producing magnetic fields nearly two million times stronger than Earth's--are applied to materials that...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

VideoLinks
Industry & Economy
Event News

Within reach of the Universe

08.08.2018 | Event News

A journey through the history of microscopy – new exhibition opens at the MDC

27.07.2018 | Event News

2018 Work Research Conference

25.07.2018 | Event News

 
Latest News

Unraveling the nature of 'whistlers' from space in the lab

15.08.2018 | Physics and Astronomy

Diving robots find Antarctic winter seas exhale surprising amounts of carbon dioxide

15.08.2018 | Earth Sciences

Early opaque universe linked to galaxy scarcity

15.08.2018 | Physics and Astronomy

VideoLinks
Science & Research
Overview of more VideoLinks >>>