The first study to compare survival between women with breast cancer whose treatment was based on consensus guidelines and those whose treatment was not shows that adhering to established guidelines improves survival and reduces the risk of recurrence. The study retrospectively examined whether the systemic therapy prescribed after surgery for women with early-stage breast cancer was consistent with treatment guidelines established for at the time. Systemic therapy includes chemotherapy and hormonal therapy and is designed to reach cancer cells that may have spread beyond the original tumor site. The study and an accompanying editorial will be published online August 2 in the Journal of Clinical Oncology (JCO) at http://www.jco.org.
Using medical records from Canada’s national health care system, Dr. Hébert-Croteau and her colleagues compared survival between 1,002 women with early breast cancer whose systemic treatment was delivered according to guidelines developed at the 1992 St-Gallen conference in Switzerland, and 380 women whose treatment differed from those guidelines. The study also included 159 women whose guideline adherence was unknown. The women were diagnosed between 1988 and 1994 with invasive breast cancer that had not spread to nearby lymph nodes.
Developed by consensus with input from oncologists in Europe and North America, the St-Gallen guidelines continue to be updated regularly and are considered among the best guidelines available. The guidelines stipulate whether a woman with node-negative breast cancer should, after surgery, receive tamoxifen, chemotherapy, neither (as is the case for women at low risk of recurrence), or both, depending on her risk.
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DESY and MPSD scientists create high-order harmonics from solids with controlled polarization states, taking advantage of both crystal symmetry and attosecond electronic dynamics. The newly demonstrated technique might find intriguing applications in petahertz electronics and for spectroscopic studies of novel quantum materials.
The nonlinear process of high-order harmonic generation (HHG) in gases is one of the cornerstones of attosecond science (an attosecond is a billionth of a...
Nano- and microtechnology are promising candidates not only for medical applications such as drug delivery but also for the creation of little robots or flexible integrated sensors. Scientists from the Max Planck Institute for Polymer Research (MPI-P) have created magnetic microparticles, with a newly developed method, that could pave the way for building micro-motors or guiding drugs in the human body to a target, like a tumor. The preparation of such structures as well as their remote-control can be regulated using magnetic fields and therefore can find application in an array of domains.
The magnetic properties of a material control how this material responds to the presence of a magnetic field. Iron oxide is the main component of rust but also...
Due to the special arrangement of its molecules, a new coating made of corn starch is able to repair small scratches by itself through heat: The cross-linking via ring-shaped molecules makes the material mobile, so that it compensates for the scratches and these disappear again.
Superficial micro-scratches on the car body or on other high-gloss surfaces are harmless, but annoying. Especially in the luxury segment such surfaces are...
The Potsdam Echelle Polarimetric and Spectroscopic Instrument (PEPSI) at the Large Binocular Telescope (LBT) in Arizona released its first image of the surface magnetic field of another star. In a paper in the European journal Astronomy & Astrophysics, the PEPSI team presents a Zeeman- Doppler-Image of the surface of the magnetically active star II Pegasi.
A special technique allows astronomers to resolve the surfaces of faraway stars. Those are otherwise only seen as point sources, even in the largest telescopes...
Researchers at Chalmers University of Technology and the University of Gothenburg, Sweden, have proposed a way to create a completely new source of radiation. Ultra-intense light pulses consist of the motion of a single wave and can be described as a tsunami of light. The strong wave can be used to study interactions between matter and light in a unique way. Their research is now published in the scientific journal Physical Review Letters.
"This source of radiation lets us look at reality through a new angle - it is like twisting a mirror and discovering something completely different," says...
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