Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Electronic nose device proves effective for diagnosing pneumonia and sinusitis

29.04.2004


Penn researchers show effectiveness of device in analyzing gases exhaled from the nose to determine presence of common bacterial infections



Researchers at the University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine have recently completed three studies – the most comprehensive and largest to date – that demonstrate the effectiveness of an electronic nose device for diagnosing common respiratory infections, specifically pneumonia and sinusitis. Doctors hope that the device – called the Cyranose 320, or e-nose – will provide a faster, more cost-effective and easier-to-use method for accurately diagnosing pneumonia and, as a result, help reduce over-prescription of antibiotics. Their initial findings will be presented at the combined annual meetings of otorhinolaryngology (ear, nose and throat) experts – the Triologic Society and the American Broncho-Esophagological Association – on April 30th, 2004, in Phoenix, Arizona.
"Pneumonia is a serious bacterial infection that can cause serious injury or even death; indeed, it remains a leading cause of death in intensive care units (ICUs)," said lead author of the first study, C. William Hanson III, MD, Professor of Anesthesia and board-certified expert in critical care medicine. "Treating this illness is complicated because there are many kinds of pneumonia, and it can be commonly misdiagnosed in the ICU and confused with other diseases which cannot be treated using antibiotics. This is a leading cause of the overuse – through over-prescription – of antibiotics for false cases of pneumonia."

The first two studies looked at pneumonia cases among patients who are on ventilators in the surgical intensive care unit (SICU). Here, diagnosis is made difficult by the patients’ limited ability to move, and they are vulnerable to infections from other compounding injuries. In the first study, researchers found that the e-nose effectively diagnosed 92 percent of pneumonia cases among 25 patients, as confirmed by computed tomography (CT) scans of the lungs. It successfully distinguished 13 positive cases from 12 other patients who did not have pneumonia. Similarly, in the second study, researchers found the e-nose effective in providing accurate diagnoses of pneumonia in 31 of 44 SICU patients (70 percent).



One quarter of ventilated SICU patients develop pneumonia – a serious complication that can threaten the patient’s life, requires immediate treatment with antibiotics, and also increases their hospital stay three-fold, with average additional hospital costs of $11,000 per patient.

The third study looked at sinusitis, the most common diagnosis from respiratory complaints by patients in outpatient clinics. The e-nose was effective at diagnosing 82 percent of sinusitis cases among 22 patients, one half infected and the other half not so.

All bacteria, as living organisms, produce unique arrays or mixtures of exhaled gases. The e-nose works by comparing "smellprints" from a patient’s breath sample to standardized, or known, readings stored on a computer chip. These "smellprints" are created from both electro-chemical and mathematical analysis of exhaled gases contained in a breath sample. Upon analysis, identifiable patterns emerge, and a patient’s "smellprint" can tell a physician whether or not bacteria are present and, if so, what kind. This can aid not just in the accuracy of diagnosis, but can also help physicians select the most effective antibiotic for treatment.

"The results confirm that exhaled breath can be analyzed for pneumonia and sinusitis using a commercially available e-nose device," said lead investigator for the sinusitis study and co-investigator for the pneumonia studies, Erica Thaler, MD, an Associate Professor of Otorhinolaryngology: Head and Neck Surgery at Penn. "There is the potential with this device to radically change and improve the way we diagnose and treat both conditions – for which there is no gold-standard test. And, given that we can apply this sensory analysis to the detection of pneumonia and sinusitis, then, hopefully, it can be applied to common bacterial infections of the upper respiratory tract."

The e-nose is also being studied for its possible use in diagnosing many other illnesses, including: lung cancer, kidney disease and cirrhosis of the liver, otitis media (middle ear infections) in children, or even detection of chemicals and biological agents. Manufactured by Smiths Detection of Pasadena, CA, the machines cost approximately $8,000 USD, and still require approval from the federal Food and Drug Administration before they can be widely used. Breath samples are taken with a hand-held sensor – about the size of child’s video game player – connected to a standard oxygen mask with cup, as the patient breathes normally. Readings are displayed by connecting the device to a laptop computer.

"Flexibility and ease-of-use are the greatest advantages of the e-nose," said lead researcher Neil Hockstein, MD, a clinical instructor and Penn otorhinolaryngologist. "They are miniaturized devices, provide quick results, are relatively inexpensive, non-invasive, safe for patients and they could be used in a doctor’s office – or, potentially, even at home."

David March | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.uphs.upenn.edu/news

More articles from Health and Medicine:

nachricht Inhaling air pollution-like irritant alters defensive heart-lung reflex for hypertension
19.06.2019 | University of South Florida (USF Innovation)

nachricht Nitric oxide-scavenging hydrogel developed for rheumatoid arthritis treatment
06.06.2019 | Pohang University of Science & Technology (POSTECH)

All articles from Health and Medicine >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Successfully Tested in Praxis: Bidirectional Sensor Technology Optimizes Laser Material Deposition

The quality of additively manufactured components depends not only on the manufacturing process, but also on the inline process control. The process control ensures a reliable coating process because it detects deviations from the target geometry immediately. At LASER World of PHOTONICS 2019, the Fraunhofer Institute for Laser Technology ILT will be demonstrating how well bi-directional sensor technology can already be used for Laser Material Deposition (LMD) in combination with commercial optics at booth A2.431.

Fraunhofer ILT has been developing optical sensor technology specifically for production measurement technology for around 10 years. In particular, its »bd-1«...

Im Focus: The hidden structure of the periodic system

The well-known representation of chemical elements is just one example of how objects can be arranged and classified

The periodic table of elements that most chemistry books depict is only one special case. This tabular overview of the chemical elements, which goes back to...

Im Focus: MPSD team discovers light-induced ferroelectricity in strontium titanate

Light can be used not only to measure materials’ properties, but also to change them. Especially interesting are those cases in which the function of a material can be modified, such as its ability to conduct electricity or to store information in its magnetic state. A team led by Andrea Cavalleri from the Max Planck Institute for the Structure and Dynamics of Matter in Hamburg used terahertz frequency light pulses to transform a non-ferroelectric material into a ferroelectric one.

Ferroelectricity is a state in which the constituent lattice “looks” in one specific direction, forming a macroscopic electrical polarisation. The ability to...

Im Focus: Determining the Earth’s gravity field more accurately than ever before

Researchers at TU Graz calculate the most accurate gravity field determination of the Earth using 1.16 billion satellite measurements. This yields valuable knowledge for climate research.

The Earth’s gravity fluctuates from place to place. Geodesists use this phenomenon to observe geodynamic and climatological processes. Using...

Im Focus: Tube anemone has the largest animal mitochondrial genome ever sequenced

Discovery by Brazilian and US researchers could change the classification of two species, which appear more akin to jellyfish than was thought.

The tube anemone Isarachnanthus nocturnus is only 15 cm long but has the largest mitochondrial genome of any animal sequenced to date, with 80,923 base pairs....

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

VideoLinks
Industry & Economy
Event News

SEMANTiCS 2019 brings together industry leaders and data scientists in Karlsruhe

29.04.2019 | Event News

Revered mathematicians and computer scientists converge with 200 young researchers in Heidelberg!

17.04.2019 | Event News

First dust conference in the Central Asian part of the earth’s dust belt

15.04.2019 | Event News

 
Latest News

A new force for optical tweezers awakens

19.06.2019 | Physics and Astronomy

New AI system manages road infrastructure via Google Street View

19.06.2019 | Information Technology

A new manufacturing process for aluminum alloys

19.06.2019 | Materials Sciences

VideoLinks
Science & Research
Overview of more VideoLinks >>>