In amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), neighborhood may be everything, if a new study in mouse models of the disease holds true for patients.
ALS, or Lou Gehrigs disease, brings about a gradual death of the motor neurons that activate muscles. Paralysis follows. But according to work described today in the journal Science, the cells that are next to motor neurons -- but arent themselves nerve cells -- can play a major role in advancing or limiting the disease.
"What weve been given is a new principle for extending survival or, perhaps, overcoming ALS, based on how many healthy cells surround an ailing motor nerve cell," says Don Cleveland, Ph.D., a scientist with The Packard Center for ALS Research at Johns Hopkins and, with Larry Goldstein, Ph.D., co-leader of the research team. "All this has great implications for stem cell therapy," he adds. "We now believe delivery of normal, non-neuronal cells to spinal cords could be completely protective, even without replacement of a single motor neuron."
Joanna Downer | EurekAlert!
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Most natural and artificial surfaces are rough: metals and even glasses that appear smooth to the naked eye can look like jagged mountain ranges under the microscope. There is currently no uniform theory about the origin of this roughness despite it being observed on all scales, from the atomic to the tectonic. Scientists suspect that the rough surface is formed by irreversible plastic deformation that occurs in many processes of mechanical machining of components such as milling.
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Researchers at Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden, recently completed a 5-year research project looking at how to make fibre optic communications systems more energy efficient. Among their proposals are smart, error-correcting data chip circuits, which they refined to be 10 times less energy consumptive. The project has yielded several scientific articles, in publications including Nature Communications.
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After helping develop a new approach for organic synthesis -- carbon-hydrogen functionalization -- scientists at Emory University are now showing how this approach may apply to drug discovery. Nature Catalysis published their most recent work -- a streamlined process for making a three-dimensional scaffold of keen interest to the pharmaceutical industry.
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