Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

AIDS development can be monitored and predicted

11.09.2003


Total lymphocyte count and hemoglobin concentration lowers at onset of the disease



People with HIV and their physicians could have a less expensive tool to track the progression from HIV infection to AIDS. According to researchers from the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, a decline in the total lymphocyte counts (TLC) and hemoglobin (Hgb) concentration in the blood may be used to monitor a patient’s disease status. Currently, HIV RNA and CD4+ cells in the blood are measured. However, specialized equipment and training for lab technicians makes these measurements expensive. TLC and Hgb measurements are much less expensive and can be obtained by using standard blood tests. "Rapid declines in total lymphocyte counts and hemoglobin concentration prior to AIDS among HIV-1-infected men," appears in the September 2003 issue of the journal AIDS, the official journal of the International AIDS Society.

The study’s lead author, Bryan Lau, a graduate student in the School’s Department of Epidemiology, said, "This study demonstrates that there is a biological event that occurs during the progression of HIV infection leading to declines in TLC and Hgb within individuals. The majority of HIV individuals who develop AIDS experience a rapid decline in total lymphocyte counts and hemoglobin concentration that starts about one and one-half years prior to developing AIDS. The decline in these two markers in individuals who develop AIDS shows that this is an important event in the pathogenesis of the disease."


The study authors analyzed longitudinal measurements of TLC and Hgb in 3,299 homosexual and bisexual men enrolled in the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study (MACS) from 1984-1991. The researchers found that for many years after HIV infection, TLC and Hgb markers are stable and provide little information about HIV disease progression to AIDS.

However, as HIV disease progresses, TLC and Hgb begin to decline rapidly. A TLC decline greater than 10 percent per year and Hgb decline greater than 2.2 percent per year was present in over 77 percent of the study participants who developed AIDS and absent from over 78 percent of individuals who did not develop AIDS.

To further support their findings, the researchers explain in their study that current World Health Organization guidelines suggest the use of TLC measurements for monitoring an individual’s HIV infection in developing countries if CD4+ cell counts are not known. Hgb levels have also been shown to have an association with progression from asymptomatic HIV infection to AIDS.

Currently, in order to begin antiretroviral therapy for asymptomatic HIV-infected individuals, measurements of HIV RNA levels and CD4+ lymphocyte counts in the blood are required. These measurements are expensive and require technological expertise and equipment that is typically not available in developing countries.

Joseph Margolick, a contributing author and professor in the School’s Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, said, "These results could be very useful for regions with scarce heath-care resources as an alternative way of identifying individuals who should receive drug therapy for HIV infection. We believe further research in appropriate populations is warranted."


Stephen J. Gange, Adjunct Associate Professor in the School’s Department of Epidemiology, and Joseph B. Margolick, Professor in the Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, co-authored the study. Additional co-authors are John P. Phair, with Northwestern University Medical School, Sharon A. Riddler, with the University of Pittsburgh, and Roger Detels, with UCLA’s School of Public Health.

The MACS is funded by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases and the National Cancer Institute.

Kenna Brigham | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.jhsph.edu

More articles from Health and Medicine:

nachricht Lung images of twins with asthma add to understanding of the disease
05.12.2019 | University of Western Ontario

nachricht Between Arousal and Inhibition
05.12.2019 | Albert-Ludwigs-Universität Freiburg im Breisgau

All articles from Health and Medicine >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: The coldest reaction

With ultracold chemistry, researchers get a first look at exactly what happens during a chemical reaction

The coldest chemical reaction in the known universe took place in what appears to be a chaotic mess of lasers. The appearance deceives: Deep within that...

Im Focus: How do scars form? Fascia function as a repository of mobile scar tissue

Abnormal scarring is a serious threat resulting in non-healing chronic wounds or fibrosis. Scars form when fibroblasts, a type of cell of connective tissue, reach wounded skin and deposit plugs of extracellular matrix. Until today, the question about the exact anatomical origin of these fibroblasts has not been answered. In order to find potential ways of influencing the scarring process, the team of Dr. Yuval Rinkevich, Group Leader for Regenerative Biology at the Institute of Lung Biology and Disease at Helmholtz Zentrum München, aimed to finally find an answer. As it was already known that all scars derive from a fibroblast lineage expressing the Engrailed-1 gene - a lineage not only present in skin, but also in fascia - the researchers intentionally tried to understand whether or not fascia might be the origin of fibroblasts.

Fibroblasts kit - ready to heal wounds

Im Focus: McMaster researcher warns plastic pollution in Great Lakes growing concern to ecosystem

Research from a leading international expert on the health of the Great Lakes suggests that the growing intensity and scale of pollution from plastics poses serious risks to human health and will continue to have profound consequences on the ecosystem.

In an article published this month in the Journal of Waste Resources and Recycling, Gail Krantzberg, a professor in the Booth School of Engineering Practice...

Im Focus: Machine learning microscope adapts lighting to improve diagnosis

Prototype microscope teaches itself the best illumination settings for diagnosing malaria

Engineers at Duke University have developed a microscope that adapts its lighting angles, colors and patterns while teaching itself the optimal...

Im Focus: Small particles, big effects: How graphene nanoparticles improve the resolution of microscopes

Conventional light microscopes cannot distinguish structures when they are separated by a distance smaller than, roughly, the wavelength of light. Superresolution microscopy, developed since the 1980s, lifts this limitation, using fluorescent moieties. Scientists at the Max Planck Institute for Polymer Research have now discovered that graphene nano-molecules can be used to improve this microscopy technique. These graphene nano-molecules offer a number of substantial advantages over the materials previously used, making superresolution microscopy even more versatile.

Microscopy is an important investigation method, in physics, biology, medicine, and many other sciences. However, it has one disadvantage: its resolution is...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

VideoLinks
Industry & Economy
Event News

The Future of Work

03.12.2019 | Event News

First International Conference on Agrophotovoltaics in August 2020

15.11.2019 | Event News

Laser Symposium on Electromobility in Aachen: trends for the mobility revolution

15.11.2019 | Event News

 
Latest News

Detailed insight into stressed cells

05.12.2019 | Life Sciences

State of 'hibernation' keeps haematopoietic stem cells young - Niches in the bone marrow protect from ageing

05.12.2019 | Life Sciences

First field measurements of laughing gas isotopes

05.12.2019 | Materials Sciences

VideoLinks
Science & Research
Overview of more VideoLinks >>>