Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

New evidence linking smoking and lung cancer in women

10.12.2002


A Mayo Clinic study of more than 41,000 postmenopausal women in Iowa provides new evidence that the most common type of lung cancer in women is more closely linked to smoking cigarettes than previously recognized. The findings of the study will be published in the Dec. 15, 2002 issue of the American Journal of Epidemiology.



Lung cancer has been the leading cause of cancer death in women for more than a decade. In 2000, about 68,000 American women died of lung cancer. That’s compared to about 40,000 women who died from breast cancer.

While the lung cancer-tobacco connection is well established, researchers have suspected that adenocarcinoma -- which accounts for over 40 percent of lung cancer in women -- was linked to other, unknown risk factors. That’s because adenocarcinoma, more so than other forms of lung cancer, strikes women who have never smoked.


The Mayo Clinic study used a statistical model to compare the incidence rates of the three types of lung cancer: adenocarcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma and small cell carcinoma.

"We found adenocarcinoma of the lung is more strongly associated with smoking than previously recognized," says Ping Yang, M.D., Ph.D., a Mayo Clinic epidemiologist and lead researcher on the study.

For example, among 10,000 women who do not smoke, each year three women will develop any lung cancer, two of them being adenocarcinoma. Among the same number of women who smoked a pack of cigarettes a day for 20 to 39 years, 30 will develop lung cancer each year: 14 adenocarcinoma, 8 squamous cell and 8 small cell lung cancer. All three types of lung cancer are very serious illnesses.

"Knowing the very strong association between smoking and adenocarinoma is important because researchers were beginning to look for other causes and ways to prevent it," says Dr. Yang. "The best advice remains: don’t smoke cigarettes."

How the data was gathered

In 1986, a questionnaire was mailed to approximately 100,000 randomly selected women in Iowa between the ages of 55 and 69. The 41,836 respondents were surveyed again in 1987, 1989, 1992 and 1997. They responded to questions about their health and smoking history. Lung cancer cases were identified through the State Health Registry of Iowa, part of a National Cancer Institutes research program.

Through 1998, 598 women in the study were identified with lung cancer: 234 with adenocarcinoma, 115 with squamous carcinoma, 123 with small cell carcinoma and 126 with other subtypes.

Researchers used this data in a statistical model to calculate excess risk of lung cancer. Excess risk is the difference in risk between women who smoked and women who never smoked. It can only be calculated in a cohort study -- one that follows large numbers of people for many years -- smokers and those who have never smoked.

"You can’t get an accurate picture of lung cancer risk by just studying smokers," she says. "You need to have reliable data from sizable number of those who have never smoked."

Dr. Yang said questions still remain about why adenocarcinoma strikes nonsmokers more often than other types of lung cancers. "The culprit is very likely to be exposure to second-hand smoke. We could not get a direct answer from this study," says Dr. Yang. "Other Mayo Clinic research projects are further examining the connection between second-hand smoke and adenocarcinoma.


To obtain the latest news releases from Mayo Clinic, go to www.mayoclinic.org/news. MayoClinic.com (www.mayoclinic.com) is available as a resource for your health stories

Mary Lawson | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.mayo.edu/
http://www.mayoclinic.org/news

All articles from Health and Medicine >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Regensburg physicists watch electron transfer in a single molecule

For the first time, an international team of scientists based in Regensburg, Germany, has recorded the orbitals of single molecules in different charge states in a novel type of microscopy. The research findings are published under the title “Mapping orbital changes upon electron transfer with tunneling microscopy on insulators” in the prestigious journal “Nature”.

The building blocks of matter surrounding us are atoms and molecules. The properties of that matter, however, are often not set by these building blocks...

Im Focus: University of Konstanz gains new insights into the recent development of the human immune system

Scientists at the University of Konstanz identify fierce competition between the human immune system and bacterial pathogens

Cell biologists from the University of Konstanz shed light on a recent evolutionary process in the human immune system and publish their findings in the...

Im Focus: Transformation through Light

Laser physicists have taken snapshots of carbon molecules C₆₀ showing how they transform in intense infrared light

When carbon molecules C₆₀ are exposed to an intense infrared light, they change their ball-like structure to a more elongated version. This has now been...

Im Focus: Famous “sandpile model” shown to move like a traveling sand dune

Researchers at IST Austria find new property of important physical model. Results published in PNAS

The so-called Abelian sandpile model has been studied by scientists for more than 30 years to better understand a physical phenomenon called self-organized...

Im Focus: Cryo-force spectroscopy reveals the mechanical properties of DNA components

Physicists from the University of Basel have developed a new method to examine the elasticity and binding properties of DNA molecules on a surface at extremely low temperatures. With a combination of cryo-force spectroscopy and computer simulations, they were able to show that DNA molecules behave like a chain of small coil springs. The researchers reported their findings in Nature Communications.

DNA is not only a popular research topic because it contains the blueprint for life – it can also be used to produce tiny components for technical applications.

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

VideoLinks
Industry & Economy
Event News

Global Legal Hackathon at HAW Hamburg

11.02.2019 | Event News

The world of quantum chemistry meets in Heidelberg

30.01.2019 | Event News

Our digital society in 2040

16.01.2019 | Event News

 
Latest News

Gravitational waves will settle cosmic conundrum

15.02.2019 | Physics and Astronomy

Spintronics by 'straintronics'

15.02.2019 | Physics and Astronomy

Platinum nanoparticles for selective treatment of liver cancer cells

15.02.2019 | Life Sciences

VideoLinks
Science & Research
Overview of more VideoLinks >>>