Neck injuries among vehicle drivers as a result of being rear-ended remain a major problem for victims and cost insurance companies and society huge sums. Bertil Jonsson's dissertation shows that women run three times the risk of incurring debilitating neck injuries compared with men. For both women and men, the findings show that the driver's seat entails twice the risk compared with the front passenger seat.
The dissertation elucidates differences in the sitting position between women and men in the various seats of a car that can provide a partial explanation of the risk differentials observed. Women drivers adjust the driver seat differently than male drivers do: women sit higher and closer to the steering wheel and have the seat back more upright.
Men have a greater distance between the back of their head and the neck support (so-called backset) compared with women, both when the car is stationary and when driving. If the driver holds his/her hands on the upper part of the steering wheel, the backset distance also increases to the head support compared with the passenger position. High backset values are a known risk factor for neck injuries in rear-end collisions.
The scope of the neck to move in a horizontal backward direction (so-called retraction) is different between the sexes, but it is also affected by sitting position. A slouched posture entails a greater distance to the head support and also reduces the scope for free movement backward (retraction). When this scope is exceeded, injuries probably occur.
Current crash dummies used to develop vehicle seats and neck supports, for instance, are geared to men of normal size, but not to women. This is especially true in regard to height. Nor does testing methodology take into consideration differences between the sexes, or differences in sitting position between the driver's seat and the front passenger seat.
The dissertation shows that further research is needed regarding sitting position and the risk of injury. Test methods need to be developed for rear-end collisions, as well as a female crash dummy. The findings provide a foundation for the development of new test methods and protective systems in future vehicles that could reduce the risk of neck injury in rear-end collisions.
Pressofficer Bertil Born; +46-703886058; firstname.lastname@example.org.
Bertil Born | idw
The cytoskeleton of neurons has been found to be involved in Alzheimer's disease
18.01.2019 | University of the Basque Country
Bioinspired nanoscale drug delivery method developed by WSU, PNNL researchers
10.01.2019 | Washington State University
The scientific and political community alike stress the importance of German Antarctic research
Joint Press Release from the BMBF and AWI
The Antarctic is a frigid continent south of the Antarctic Circle, where researchers are the only inhabitants. Despite the hostile conditions, here the Alfred...
World first experiments on sensor that may revolutionise everything from medical devices to unmanned vehicles
The new sensor - capable of detecting vibrations of living cells - may revolutionise everything from medical devices to unmanned vehicles.
Dead and alive at the same time? Researchers at the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics have implemented Erwin Schrödinger’s paradoxical gedanken experiment employing an entangled atom-light state.
In 1935 Erwin Schrödinger formulated a thought experiment designed to capture the paradoxical nature of quantum physics. The crucial element of this gedanken...
Cellulose obtained from wood has amazing material properties. Empa researchers are now equipping the biodegradable material with additional functionalities to produce implants for cartilage diseases using 3D printing.
It all starts with an ear. Empa researcher Michael Hausmann removes the object shaped like a human ear from the 3D printer and explains:
The phenomenon of so-called superlubricity is known, but so far the explanation at the atomic level has been missing: for example, how does extremely low friction occur in bearings? Researchers from the Fraunhofer Institutes IWM and IWS jointly deciphered a universal mechanism of superlubricity for certain diamond-like carbon layers in combination with organic lubricants. Based on this knowledge, it is now possible to formulate design rules for supra lubricating layer-lubricant combinations. The results are presented in an article in Nature Communications, volume 10.
One of the most important prerequisites for sustainable and environmentally friendly mobility is minimizing friction. Research and industry have been dedicated...
16.01.2019 | Event News
14.01.2019 | Event News
12.12.2018 | Event News
18.01.2019 | Materials Sciences
18.01.2019 | Life Sciences
18.01.2019 | Health and Medicine