Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Better and faster: Distinguishing non-TB pulmonary disease from TB

03.04.2008
A diagnostic kit shows new promise for distinguishing between tuberculosis (TB) and its infections from disease caused by related mycobacteria family, which mimic TB and other lung disease in symptoms but require distinctly different clinical treatments.

The bacterium that causes TB, mycobacteria tuberculosis, comes from a larger family of mycobacteria, certain strains of which can cause lung disease. The most common pathogenic nontubercular mycobacteria are known together as Mycobacterium avium complex, or MAC. Distinguishing MAC-related pulmonary disease (MAC-PD) from TB is difficult, and can take eight weeks or more. Complicating matters, MAC bacteria are ubiquitous in the environment, and a positive culture may mean nothing more than specimen contamination.

Now, researchers have shown in a multi-center study that differentiating MAC-PD from TB can be accomplished in just a few hours using an assay that can identify antibodies specific to MAC.

The research was published in the first issue for April of the American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, published by the American Thoracic Society.

MAC is responsible for a growing proportion of pulmonary disease, but how much is unclear. “There are more cases being reported,” said Dr. Alvin Teirstein, professor of medicine at Mount Sinai School of Medicine. “We are not sure where it was hiding 25 years ago, but there appears to be a growing epidemic over the last 20 years.”

Up to now, distinguishing between MAC and TB largely relied on a suite of clinical signs and obtaining repeatedly positive sputum cultures—a process that was both unwieldy and often unreliable. “About 20 percent of the time the physician might make the wrong determination,” said Dr. Teirstein.

Furthermore, even though initial diagnosis is uncertain, patients whose sputum is positive for acid-fast bacilli are often immediately isolated and sometimes started on a regimen of anti-TB drugs. Isolating non-TB patients and beginning inappropriate treatment regimens not only drains resources that could be used to treat infectious TB, it is a burden and risk to the patient as well. In contrast to TB, MAC is not contagious and sometimes requires no treatment.

“Diagnosis of pulmonary disease due to MAC is complicated and time-consuming,” wrote Seigo Kitada, lead researcher on the study. “In the context of infection control it is particularly important to distinguish between MAC-PD and pulmonary TB.”

To test the efficacy of the immunoassay kit, the researchers acquired specimens from six centers between June 2003 and December 2005. The samples came from 70 patients with MAC-PD; 18 with MAC contamination, 36 with pulmonary TB, 45 with other lung disease and 76 from healthy patients.

They found that found that serum antibody levels to the MAC-specific antigen were higher in patients with MAC pulmonary disease as compared to those with other respiratory diseases, including tuberculosis. The sensitivity and specificity of the serologic test were 84.3% and 100%, respectively. Equally important, the test, took only hours as opposed to the four to eight weeks it takes to determine conventional culture results.

While Dr. Tierstein points out that to be validated, the kit must perform well with different populations and in different locations, as MAC strains can vary from place to place, this is the first multi-center demonstration of the efficacy of such a kit, raising the hope that it may solve the problem of distinguishing MAC-PD from TB and represents a critical step in increasing the accuracy and efficiency in treating patients with MAC-PD and TB.

Keely Savoie | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.thoracic.org

More articles from Health and Medicine:

nachricht The genes are not to blame
20.07.2018 | Technische Universität München

nachricht Targeting headaches and tumors with nano-submarines
20.07.2018 | Universitätsmedizin der Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz

All articles from Health and Medicine >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Future electronic components to be printed like newspapers

A new manufacturing technique uses a process similar to newspaper printing to form smoother and more flexible metals for making ultrafast electronic devices.

The low-cost process, developed by Purdue University researchers, combines tools already used in industry for manufacturing metals on a large scale, but uses...

Im Focus: First evidence on the source of extragalactic particles

For the first time ever, scientists have determined the cosmic origin of highest-energy neutrinos. A research group led by IceCube scientist Elisa Resconi, spokesperson of the Collaborative Research Center SFB1258 at the Technical University of Munich (TUM), provides an important piece of evidence that the particles detected by the IceCube neutrino telescope at the South Pole originate from a galaxy four billion light-years away from Earth.

To rule out other origins with certainty, the team led by neutrino physicist Elisa Resconi from the Technical University of Munich and multi-wavelength...

Im Focus: Magnetic vortices: Two independent magnetic skyrmion phases discovered in a single material

For the first time a team of researchers have discovered two different phases of magnetic skyrmions in a single material. Physicists of the Technical Universities of Munich and Dresden and the University of Cologne can now better study and understand the properties of these magnetic structures, which are important for both basic research and applications.

Whirlpools are an everyday experience in a bath tub: When the water is drained a circular vortex is formed. Typically, such whirls are rather stable. Similar...

Im Focus: Breaking the bond: To take part or not?

Physicists working with Roland Wester at the University of Innsbruck have investigated if and how chemical reactions can be influenced by targeted vibrational excitation of the reactants. They were able to demonstrate that excitation with a laser beam does not affect the efficiency of a chemical exchange reaction and that the excited molecular group acts only as a spectator in the reaction.

A frequently used reaction in organic chemistry is nucleophilic substitution. It plays, for example, an important role in in the synthesis of new chemical...

Im Focus: New 2D Spectroscopy Methods

Optical spectroscopy allows investigating the energy structure and dynamic properties of complex quantum systems. Researchers from the University of Würzburg present two new approaches of coherent two-dimensional spectroscopy.

"Put an excitation into the system and observe how it evolves." According to physicist Professor Tobias Brixner, this is the credo of optical spectroscopy....

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

VideoLinks
Industry & Economy
Event News

Leading experts in Diabetes, Metabolism and Biomedical Engineering discuss Precision Medicine

13.07.2018 | Event News

Conference on Laser Polishing – LaP: Fine Tuning for Surfaces

12.07.2018 | Event News

11th European Wood-based Panel Symposium 2018: Meeting point for the wood-based materials industry

03.07.2018 | Event News

 
Latest News

A smart safe rechargeable zinc ion battery based on sol-gel transition electrolytes

20.07.2018 | Power and Electrical Engineering

Reversing cause and effect is no trouble for quantum computers

20.07.2018 | Information Technology

Princeton-UPenn research team finds physics treasure hidden in a wallpaper pattern

20.07.2018 | Materials Sciences

VideoLinks
Science & Research
Overview of more VideoLinks >>>