A comprehensive, clinical nomogram tool, the Sunnybrook Prostate Cancer Risk Calculator – the first to use all known risk factors for prostate cancer – is available online to help men determine individual prostate cancer risk in consultation with their primary care physician. A nomogram is a statistical model to determine risk for disease based on risk factors using a table and chart format.
"This tool facilitates proactive dialogue between patients and their primary care physicians about prostate cancer risk, and management and treatment options," says Dr. Robert Nam, lead investigator and urologic oncologist, Odette Cancer Centre, Sunnybrook. “In addition to helping men avoid unnecessary biopsies this nomogram better detects prostate cancer at an earlier more curable stage and helps identify high risk patients who may need to make immediate dietary and lifestyle changes and need repeat biopsies.”
Sunnybrook researchers developed and validated the nomogram with 3,108 Canadian men including a subset of 408 volunteers with normal PSA (prostate specific antigen) levels who underwent a prostate biopsy. Of the 3,108 men, 42 per cent were diagnosed with prostate cancer. The nomogram was shown to perform better than conventional screening with PSA and DRE (digital rectal exam) alone, especially for patients with a known normal PSA level. Among the 408 men with a normal PSA, 24 per cent were diagnosed with prostate cancer. Further evaluation of the nomogram is underway with a multi-institutional, cross-Canada study group of another 5,000 men.
At age 70, Colin Graham’s PSA level was considered normal (less than or equal to 4.0 ng/ML). When the nomogram was used to assess all his risk factors, Dr. Nam recommended a prostate biopsy. The biopsy diagnosed aggressive prostate cancer and Colin underwent immediate and successful treatment through surgery. "I can’t express enough the relief I felt, knowing things were caught in time," says Graham, "and though this cancer was removed successfully, because I know my risk, I’m also aware I still need to be monitored."
"In Colin’s case, though his PSA was normal, a biopsy was justified based on the nomogram. On the other hand, in the case of an older patient with a high PSA level, if the nomogram predicts a low chance of having aggressive prostate cancer, then it would be reasonable to forego a biopsy," says Dr. Nam, assistant professor, department of surgery, University of Toronto.
Unlike current prostate cancer nomograms, this nomogram evaluates the risk of having prostate cancer in patients undergoing PSA screening. Known risk factors and tumour markers used are age, family, history of prostate cancer, ethnicity, urinary symptoms, PSA, free:total PSA ratio, and DRE (performed by the primary care physician). The Sunnybrook Prostate Cancer Risk Calculator is best used in collaboration with an individual’s primary care physician. If a patient determines he is at risk for aggressive prostate cancer, he can discuss management and treatment options in consultation with his primary care physician.
Natalie Chung-Sayers | EurekAlert!
Discovery shows promise for treating Huntington's Disease
05.08.2020 | Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne
Carbon monoxide improves endurance performance
05.08.2020 | Universität Bayreuth
Scientists at the Fraunhofer Institute for Laser Technology ILT have come up with a striking new addition to contact stamping technologies in the ERDF research project ScanCut. In collaboration with industry partners from North Rhine-Westphalia, the Aachen-based team of researchers developed a hybrid manufacturing process for the laser cutting of thin-walled metal strips. This new process makes it possible to fabricate even the tiniest details of contact parts in an eco-friendly, high-precision and efficient manner.
Plug connectors are tiny and, at first glance, unremarkable – yet modern vehicles would be unable to function without them. Several thousand plug connectors...
An international research team has found a new approach that may be able to reduce bone loss in osteoporosis and maintain bone health.
Osteoporosis is the most common age-related bone disease which affects hundreds of millions of individuals worldwide. It is estimated that one in three women...
Traditional single-cell sequencing methods help to reveal insights about cellular differences and functions - but they do this with static snapshots only...
“Core-shell” clusters pave the way for new efficient nanomaterials that make catalysts, magnetic and laser sensors or measuring devices for detecting electromagnetic radiation more efficient.
Whether in innovative high-tech materials, more powerful computer chips, pharmaceuticals or in the field of renewable energies, nanoparticles – smallest...
An international research team with Prof. Cornelia Denz from the Institute of Applied Physics at the University of Münster develop for the first time light fields using caustics that do not change during propagation. With the new method, the physicists cleverly exploit light structures that can be seen in rainbows or when light is transmitted through drinking glasses.
Modern applications as high resolution microsopy or micro- or nanoscale material processing require customized laser beams that do not change during...
23.07.2020 | Event News
21.07.2020 | Event News
07.07.2020 | Event News
06.08.2020 | Earth Sciences
06.08.2020 | Power and Electrical Engineering
06.08.2020 | Life Sciences