Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Pneumonia and Preterm Birth Complications Are the Leading Causes of Childhood Death

11.05.2012
Pneumonia is the leading cause of death among children under 5, according to a new study led by researchers at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health.

They examined the distribution of child deaths globally by cause in 2010 and found that 64 percent were attributable to infectious causes and 40 percent occurred in neonates.

The authors’ findings, published in the May issue of the Lancet, suggest a decline in the total number of deaths between 2000 and 2010, however, they caution the decline is not sufficient enough to reach Millennium Development Goal number 4, which seeks to reduce child mortality by two-thirds in 2015.

“The numbers are staggering,” said Robert Black, MD, MPH, senior author of the study and the Edgar Berman Professor and chair in the Bloomberg School’s Department of International Health. “Of 7.6 million deaths globally in children younger than 5, 1.4 million or 18 percent were a result of pneumonia, 1.1 million or 14 percent were related to preterm birth complications and 0.8 million or 11 percent were a result of diarrhea. Despite tremendous efforts to identify relevant data, the causes of only 2.7 percent of deaths in children younger than 5 years were medically certified in 2010. National health systems, as well as registration and medical certification of deaths, need to be promoted and strengthened to enable better accountability for the survival of children.”

Researchers updated the total number of deaths in children ages 0-27 days and 1-59 months and applied the deaths by cause to their corresponding country. To calculate the numbers, they used vital registration data for countries with an adequate vital registration system; applied a multinomial logistic regression model to vital registration data for low-mortality countries without adequate vital registration and used a similar multinomial logistic regression with verbal autopsy data for high-mortality countries. To generate regional and global estimates, the team aggregated country results. Researchers found that although the burden of deaths among children younger than 5 decreased by 2 million between 2000 and 2010, continued reduction at this rate would not reduce child mortality by two-thirds between 1990 and 2015 as outlined by the United Nations’ Millennium Development Goal number 4. Among the causes of death that decreased globally, uncommon causes such as tetanus, measles and AIDS dropped at an annual rate sufficient to attain Millennium Development Goal number 4, and in Africa, malaria experienced a similar reduction.

“Pneumonia, measles and diarrhea contributed the most reduction between 2000 and 2010, however, the reduction was not significant enough to achieve Millennium Development Goal number 4,” said Li Liu, PhD, MHS, lead author of the study and an assistant scientist with the Bloomberg School’s Department of International Health. “Among the 3 leading causes of death from 2000-2010, diarrhea declined the fastest at 4 percent, followed by pneumonia at 3 percent and preterm birth complications at only 2 percent. Child survival strategies should direct resources toward the leading causes of child mortality, with attention focusing on infectious and neonatal causes.”

The authors suggest, “More rapid decreases from 2010-2015 will need accelerated reduction for the most common causes of death, notably pneumonia and preterm birth complications. Continued efforts to gather high-quality data and enhance estimation methods are essential for the improvement of future estimates.”

“Global, regional, and national causes of child mortality: an updated systematic analysis for 2010 with time trends since 2000,” was written by Li Liu, Hope L. Johnson, Simon Cousens, Jamie Perin, Susana Scott, Joy E. Lawn, Igor Rudan, Harry Campbell, Richard Cibulskis, Mengying Li, Colin Mathers, and Robert E. Black.

The research was funded by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.

Natalie Wood-Wright | Newswise Science News
Further information:
http://www.jhsph.edu

More articles from Health and Medicine:

nachricht Inselspital: Fewer CT scans needed after cerebral bleeding
20.03.2019 | Universitätsspital Bern

nachricht Building blocks for new medications: the University of Graz is seeking a technology partner
19.03.2019 | Karl-Franzens-Universität Graz

All articles from Health and Medicine >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: The taming of the light screw

DESY and MPSD scientists create high-order harmonics from solids with controlled polarization states, taking advantage of both crystal symmetry and attosecond electronic dynamics. The newly demonstrated technique might find intriguing applications in petahertz electronics and for spectroscopic studies of novel quantum materials.

The nonlinear process of high-order harmonic generation (HHG) in gases is one of the cornerstones of attosecond science (an attosecond is a billionth of a...

Im Focus: Magnetic micro-boats

Nano- and microtechnology are promising candidates not only for medical applications such as drug delivery but also for the creation of little robots or flexible integrated sensors. Scientists from the Max Planck Institute for Polymer Research (MPI-P) have created magnetic microparticles, with a newly developed method, that could pave the way for building micro-motors or guiding drugs in the human body to a target, like a tumor. The preparation of such structures as well as their remote-control can be regulated using magnetic fields and therefore can find application in an array of domains.

The magnetic properties of a material control how this material responds to the presence of a magnetic field. Iron oxide is the main component of rust but also...

Im Focus: Self-healing coating made of corn starch makes small scratches disappear through heat

Due to the special arrangement of its molecules, a new coating made of corn starch is able to repair small scratches by itself through heat: The cross-linking via ring-shaped molecules makes the material mobile, so that it compensates for the scratches and these disappear again.

Superficial micro-scratches on the car body or on other high-gloss surfaces are harmless, but annoying. Especially in the luxury segment such surfaces are...

Im Focus: Stellar cartography

The Potsdam Echelle Polarimetric and Spectroscopic Instrument (PEPSI) at the Large Binocular Telescope (LBT) in Arizona released its first image of the surface magnetic field of another star. In a paper in the European journal Astronomy & Astrophysics, the PEPSI team presents a Zeeman- Doppler-Image of the surface of the magnetically active star II Pegasi.

A special technique allows astronomers to resolve the surfaces of faraway stars. Those are otherwise only seen as point sources, even in the largest telescopes...

Im Focus: Heading towards a tsunami of light

Researchers at Chalmers University of Technology and the University of Gothenburg, Sweden, have proposed a way to create a completely new source of radiation. Ultra-intense light pulses consist of the motion of a single wave and can be described as a tsunami of light. The strong wave can be used to study interactions between matter and light in a unique way. Their research is now published in the scientific journal Physical Review Letters.

"This source of radiation lets us look at reality through a new angle - it is like twisting a mirror and discovering something completely different," says...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

VideoLinks
Industry & Economy
Event News

International Modelica Conference with 330 visitors from 21 countries at OTH Regensburg

11.03.2019 | Event News

Selection Completed: 580 Young Scientists from 88 Countries at the Lindau Nobel Laureate Meeting

01.03.2019 | Event News

LightMAT 2019 – 3rd International Conference on Light Materials – Science and Technology

28.02.2019 | Event News

 
Latest News

Solving the efficiency of Gram-negative bacteria

22.03.2019 | Life Sciences

Bacteria bide their time when antibiotics attack

22.03.2019 | Life Sciences

Open source software helps researchers extract key insights from huge sensor datasets

22.03.2019 | Information Technology

VideoLinks
Science & Research
Overview of more VideoLinks >>>