This approach guarantees that the ionizing radiation only destroys tumorous cells and does not affect other organs in the vicinity of the prostate. In a cooperative study with Innsbruck Medical University and the East-Vienna Center of Social Medicine, two physicists of Vienna University of Technology (TU), evaluated the mean deviation of radiation parameters for prostate cancers and compared various sources of radiation.
Movement inaccuracies of up to two centimeters may occur in prostate radiation. “During the radiation treatment, patients have to lie on a table for some 20 minutes without moving. Over time, the muscles relax and the pelvis drops. As a consequence, the radiation may focus on the bladder or other organs. In our calculations, we concentrated on the precision of localizing the prostate and on improvement potentials in treatment,” explained Karin Poljanc, Assistant Professor at the Atomic Institute of Austrian Universities.
In a study conducted in cooperation with SMZ Ost (East-Vienna Center of Social Medicine, Danube Hospital), Poljanc and her research associates, Tanja Futschek and Leila Teymournia, used a number of ultrasound examinations that allowed for a precise localization of the patients’ organs from the outside. In a next step, the scientists analyzed the positioning of 60 patients, and evaluated the deviation of radiation in various spatial directions, such as to the right or left, and upward or downward (using 420 radiation plans for thirty patients). While it takes more time, an ultrasound system makes the shifts in position visible and traceable. If the deviation exceeds 0.8 cm, the radiology technicians are responsible for returning the patient to the correct position to ensure that the radiation only targets the specified area. In the subsequent study phase, Poljanc and her group calculated normal tissue compensation rates and the probability of tumor control. “This provides us with an overview of the probability that the tumor is targeted directly and the probability of side effects for individual patients,” notes Poljanc. These approaches serve as forecasts and provide clues for the likelihood of healing.
After a study period of some 2.5 years, with generous sponsorship of the Anniversary Fund of the Austrian National Bank, the scientists were able to implement the calculated average positioning inaccuracies in a radiation planning system. Sums up Leila Teymournia: “Depending on the calculation model used, the normal tissue compensation rate can vary widely in the results. While the use of Model A may yield a negligible complication rate, the same process calculated with Model B shows a deviation of up to 40 percent.” Due to the absence of biological parameters, major discrepancies may result with different models. Nevertheless, the results of calculations can provide physicians with data for improving patient positioning accuracy and therefore, and improvement of treatment success.
As part of their study of different radiation sources, Karin Poljanc, Tanja Futschek, and Leila Teymournia found that localization aids, such as ultrasound systems, are indispensable for accurate proton therapy of prostate carcinomas. In most cases, this combination leads to therapy results with a high level of tissue preservation.
The future establishment of the cancer research and therapy center “Med-AUSTRON” in Wiener Neustadt will implement such a treatment method in Austria.
Daniela Hallegger | alfa
The genes are not to blame
20.07.2018 | Technische Universität München
Targeting headaches and tumors with nano-submarines
20.07.2018 | Universitätsmedizin der Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz
A new manufacturing technique uses a process similar to newspaper printing to form smoother and more flexible metals for making ultrafast electronic devices.
The low-cost process, developed by Purdue University researchers, combines tools already used in industry for manufacturing metals on a large scale, but uses...
For the first time ever, scientists have determined the cosmic origin of highest-energy neutrinos. A research group led by IceCube scientist Elisa Resconi, spokesperson of the Collaborative Research Center SFB1258 at the Technical University of Munich (TUM), provides an important piece of evidence that the particles detected by the IceCube neutrino telescope at the South Pole originate from a galaxy four billion light-years away from Earth.
To rule out other origins with certainty, the team led by neutrino physicist Elisa Resconi from the Technical University of Munich and multi-wavelength...
For the first time a team of researchers have discovered two different phases of magnetic skyrmions in a single material. Physicists of the Technical Universities of Munich and Dresden and the University of Cologne can now better study and understand the properties of these magnetic structures, which are important for both basic research and applications.
Whirlpools are an everyday experience in a bath tub: When the water is drained a circular vortex is formed. Typically, such whirls are rather stable. Similar...
Physicists working with Roland Wester at the University of Innsbruck have investigated if and how chemical reactions can be influenced by targeted vibrational excitation of the reactants. They were able to demonstrate that excitation with a laser beam does not affect the efficiency of a chemical exchange reaction and that the excited molecular group acts only as a spectator in the reaction.
A frequently used reaction in organic chemistry is nucleophilic substitution. It plays, for example, an important role in in the synthesis of new chemical...
Optical spectroscopy allows investigating the energy structure and dynamic properties of complex quantum systems. Researchers from the University of Würzburg present two new approaches of coherent two-dimensional spectroscopy.
"Put an excitation into the system and observe how it evolves." According to physicist Professor Tobias Brixner, this is the credo of optical spectroscopy....
13.07.2018 | Event News
12.07.2018 | Event News
03.07.2018 | Event News
20.07.2018 | Power and Electrical Engineering
20.07.2018 | Information Technology
20.07.2018 | Materials Sciences