Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

New structure of key protein holds clues for better drug design

29.12.2017

Scientists at The Scripps Research Institute (TSRI) have peered deep into the heart of a key protein used in drug design and discovered dynamic structural features that may lead to new ways to target diseases. The protein, called the A2A adenosine receptor (A2aAR), is a member of the G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) family, which are the targets of roughly 40 percent of all approved pharmaceuticals.

The new, more detailed image of A2aAR's signaling mechanism reveals key parts of its inner workings, including an amino acid that acts like a "toggle switch" to control signaling across the cell membrane.


Probes (shown glowing here) revealed the inner architecture of the protein A2aAR in the new study.

Credit: Kurt Wuthrich and Matthew Eddy, The Scripps Research Institute

"This basic knowledge is potentially helpful for improving drug design," says Nobel laureate Kurt Wthrich, PhD, the Cecil H. and Ida M. Green Professor of Structural Biology at TSRI and senior author of the study.

The findings were published today in the journal Cell.

Imaging technique reveals how protein changes shape

All human cells contain A2aAR and other GPCRs embedded in their plasma membrane. More than 800 GPCRs have been discovered in the human body, and each has a role in regulating a bodily function. For example, A2aAR regulates blood flow and inflammation and mediates the effects of caffeine. A2aAR is also a validated target for treating Parkinson's disease and a relatively new target for targeting cancers.

"GPCRs do just about everything you can imagine," says Wthrich. "But for a long time, drug design was being done without knowing how GPCRs looked."

For the new study, the researchers aimed to better understand the relationship between A2aAR function and dynamic changes in its structure to help inform drug design.

The research built on previous studies where scientists used an imaging technique called x-ray crystallography to determine A2aAR's three-dimensional structure. The images showed that A2aAR looks like a chain that crisscrosses the cell membrane and has an opening on the side facing out of the cell. The region of the GPCR structure that sticks out of the membrane interacts with drugs and other molecules to signal to partner proteins inside the cell.

Although crystal structures provided a key outline of the receptor's shape in inactive and active-like states, they could not show motion and changes in structure when A2aAR meets new binding partners, such as pharmaceutical candidates. In short, the researchers in the new study needed to investigate why A2aAR works the way it does.

To solve this problem, the researchers used a technique called nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, which creates strong magnetic fields to locate the positions of probes in a sample. Wthrich is a world-renowned leader in the NMR field and won the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 2002 for pioneering work in NMR to study the structures of biological molecules. With NMR, scientists can determine the structures of proteins and study their dynamic properties in solution at physiological temperatures--the way they exist in the human body.

In work spearheaded by TSRI's Matthew Eddy, PhD, first author of the new study, the researchers used NMR to observe A2aAR in many different conformations, shedding light on how it changes shape on the surface of human cells in response to drug treatments.

Importantly, NMR let the team visualize changes in the internal architecture of A2aAR. This took them beyond previous solution NMR studies, which focused on the technically less demanding observation of NMR-observable probes attached to flexible parts of GPCRs, mostly located at or near the surface of the receptor. The approach in the new study enabled researchers to follow the effects of drug binding at the extracellular surface on changes in protein structure and dynamics at the intracellular surface--the structural basis of signal transfer--across the heart of the GPCR.

It was like the researchers had seen a car, and with NMR, they could finally inspect its engine.

Rethinking how we design drugs

Two details in A2aAR's structure gave researchers insight into how future drugs could manipulate the receptor. One key finding was that replacing one particular amino acid in the receptor's center destroyed the receptor's ability to send signals into the cell.

"With this finding, we can say 'A-ha! It is this change in structure that kills the signaling activity.' Maybe we can make a change in a drug to overcome this limit," says Wthrich.

The researchers also revealed the activity of a "toggle switch" in A2aAR. Previous studies suggested that one of the tryptophan amino acids in A2aAR flips up and down in concert with A2aAR's activity. With NMR, the scientists directly observed this unique tryptophan as it changed orientations in response to different drugs. Chemists could potentially modify drugs to manipulate this switch and control A2aAR signaling.

The researchers emphasize that this new study is potentially relevant for much of the large family of GPCRs. In fact, structural details from this study could apply to more than 600 "class A" GPCRs in our bodies.

In addition to Wthrich and Eddy, authors of the study, "Allosteric Coupling of Drug Binding and Intracellular Signaling in the A2a Adenosine Receptor," were Tatiana Didenko and Pawel Stanczak of The Scripps Research Institute; Reto Horst of The Scripps Research Institute and Pfizer Worldwide Research and Development; Zhan-Guo Gao and Kenneth A. Jacobson of the National Institutes of Health; and Ming-Yue Lee, Kyle M. McClary, Gye Won Han, Martin Audet, Kate L. White and Raymond C. Stevens of the University of Southern California.

###

This study was supported by the National Institutes of Health's (NIH) National Institute of General Medical Sciences (grants U54 GM094618 and R01GM115825), the NIH National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases Intramural Research Program and the American Cancer Society.

About The Scripps Research Institute

The Scripps Research Institute (TSRI) is one of the world's largest independent, not-for-profit organizations focusing on research in the biomedical sciences. TSRI is internationally recognized for its contributions to science and health, including its role in laying the foundation for new treatments for cancer, rheumatoid arthritis, hemophilia, and other diseases. An institution that evolved from the Scripps Metabolic Clinic founded by philanthropist Ellen Browning Scripps in 1924, the institute now employs more than 2,500 people on its campuses in La Jolla, CA, and Jupiter, FL, where its renowned scientists--including two Nobel laureates and 20 members of the National Academies of Science, Engineering or Medicine--work toward their next discoveries. The institute's graduate program, which awards PhD degrees in biology and chemistry, ranks among the top ten of its kind in the nation. In October 2016, TSRI announced a strategic affiliation with the California Institute for Biomedical Research (Calibr), representing a renewed commitment to the discovery and development of new medicines to address unmet medical needs. For more information, see http://www.scripps.edu.

Media Contact

Madeline McCurry-Schmidt
madms@scripps.edu
858-784-9254

 @scrippsresearch

http://www.scripps.edu 

Madeline McCurry-Schmidt | EurekAlert!

Further reports about: TSRI amino amino acid cell membrane drugs human body human cells key protein

More articles from Health and Medicine:

nachricht Unique brain 'fingerprint' can predict drug effectiveness
11.07.2018 | McGill University

nachricht Direct conversion of non-neuronal cells into nerve cells
03.07.2018 | Universitätsmedizin der Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz

All articles from Health and Medicine >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: First evidence on the source of extragalactic particles

For the first time ever, scientists have determined the cosmic origin of highest-energy neutrinos. A research group led by IceCube scientist Elisa Resconi, spokesperson of the Collaborative Research Center SFB1258 at the Technical University of Munich (TUM), provides an important piece of evidence that the particles detected by the IceCube neutrino telescope at the South Pole originate from a galaxy four billion light-years away from Earth.

To rule out other origins with certainty, the team led by neutrino physicist Elisa Resconi from the Technical University of Munich and multi-wavelength...

Im Focus: Magnetic vortices: Two independent magnetic skyrmion phases discovered in a single material

For the first time a team of researchers have discovered two different phases of magnetic skyrmions in a single material. Physicists of the Technical Universities of Munich and Dresden and the University of Cologne can now better study and understand the properties of these magnetic structures, which are important for both basic research and applications.

Whirlpools are an everyday experience in a bath tub: When the water is drained a circular vortex is formed. Typically, such whirls are rather stable. Similar...

Im Focus: Breaking the bond: To take part or not?

Physicists working with Roland Wester at the University of Innsbruck have investigated if and how chemical reactions can be influenced by targeted vibrational excitation of the reactants. They were able to demonstrate that excitation with a laser beam does not affect the efficiency of a chemical exchange reaction and that the excited molecular group acts only as a spectator in the reaction.

A frequently used reaction in organic chemistry is nucleophilic substitution. It plays, for example, an important role in in the synthesis of new chemical...

Im Focus: New 2D Spectroscopy Methods

Optical spectroscopy allows investigating the energy structure and dynamic properties of complex quantum systems. Researchers from the University of Würzburg present two new approaches of coherent two-dimensional spectroscopy.

"Put an excitation into the system and observe how it evolves." According to physicist Professor Tobias Brixner, this is the credo of optical spectroscopy....

Im Focus: Chemical reactions in the light of ultrashort X-ray pulses from free-electron lasers

Ultra-short, high-intensity X-ray flashes open the door to the foundations of chemical reactions. Free-electron lasers generate these kinds of pulses, but there is a catch: the pulses vary in duration and energy. An international research team has now presented a solution: Using a ring of 16 detectors and a circularly polarized laser beam, they can determine both factors with attosecond accuracy.

Free-electron lasers (FELs) generate extremely short and intense X-ray flashes. Researchers can use these flashes to resolve structures with diameters on the...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

VideoLinks
Industry & Economy
Event News

Leading experts in Diabetes, Metabolism and Biomedical Engineering discuss Precision Medicine

13.07.2018 | Event News

Conference on Laser Polishing – LaP: Fine Tuning for Surfaces

12.07.2018 | Event News

11th European Wood-based Panel Symposium 2018: Meeting point for the wood-based materials industry

03.07.2018 | Event News

 
Latest News

Microscopic trampoline may help create networks of quantum computers

17.07.2018 | Information Technology

In borophene, boundaries are no barrier

17.07.2018 | Materials Sciences

The role of Sodium for the Enhancement of Solar Cells

17.07.2018 | Power and Electrical Engineering

VideoLinks
Science & Research
Overview of more VideoLinks >>>