Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Multiple sclerosis, Italian researchers discover a possible onset mechanism for the disease

26.02.2010
A non-pathogenic bacterium is capable to trigger an autoimmune disease similar to the multiple sclerosis in the mouse, the model animal which helps to explain how human diseases work. This is what a group of researchers from the Catholic University of Rome, led by Francesco Ria (Institute of General Pathology) and Giovanni Delogu (Institute of Microbiology), have explained for the first time in a recently published article on the Journal of Immunology.

Multiple sclerosis is a disease due to an inflammatory reaction provoked by the immune system. It causes the disruption of the coating of the nerve fibres in the Central Nervous System.

"We do not know what causes multiple sclerosis", explains Francesco Ria, immunologist of the Catholic University. "We know that there exist a genetic factor and an environmental factor, but we do not yet posses a satisfactory theory which can explain how exactly this environmental factor works".

Currently, there are two competing theories on the field: according to a first hypothesis, a virus hides within the brain and what causes the disease is the immunologic antiviral reaction. On the other hand, the second hypothesis states that a viral or bacterial pathogen similar to specific molecules of the Central Nervous System causes an inflammation which provokes a reaction of the immune system. This reaction ends up destroying the brain cells. The latter is called the autoimmune hypothesis.

This is the hypothesis that the researchers coming from the Institutes of General Pathology, Microbiology and Anatomy of the Catholic University of Rome have been testing with their two-year long work. To demonstrate the viability of this idea, scientists have fooled the mouse immune system, modifying subtly a bacterium of the common family of mycobacteria (the same family to which also the bacterium causing tuberculosis belongs) to make it look like to myelin, the protein coating nerve cells. This modified mycobacterium is completely innocuous. As all external agents, though, it is capable to trigger the reaction of the T-cells of the immune systems. They intervene to destroy it. Since they are innocuous bacteria, although very common in the environment, and since they induce an immune reaction, they are the ideal bacteria scientists can use to study the environmental factor contributing, together with the genetic factor, to cause multiple sclerosis.

"Normally, T-cells cannot penetrate into the Central Nervous System", adds Rea, "because the hematoencephalic barrier prevents them from doing so. But the bacterium modifies the characteristics of the T-cells and allows them to overcome the barrier. In 15 days the bacterium disappears completely from the body".

Yet these T-cells can now enter into the brain. This way, they begin to attack the myelin of the nerve cells, and here is how the immune disease breaks out.

"We basically demonstrate – explains Rea – that in an animal model it is possible to be infected with something not carrying any disease, and later on develop a purely autoimmune disease".

Yet there is another element in this complex research, sponsored by the Italian Association of Multiple Sclerosis (AISM). "Normally – clarifies Rea – to understand which diseases we have encountered, we measure the antibodies produced by that specific pathogen. But there is a whole world of infectious agents which do not induce the production of antibodies, as is the case in our research: mycobacteria and many other bacteria produce a very low and variable number of antibodies. It is thus very hard to establish whether a population has encountered that specific infectious agent. So, we demonstrate that those infectious agents which are more likely to produce an autoimmune reaction are just those which do not induce antibody production".

Obviously, this is only the first step to better understand the way this very complex and devastating disease works. Ria and Delogu are not stopping here: "We want to try to understand the exact characteristics which this infectious agent should have", they explain. "Might it truly be a good experimental model for multiple sclerosis? If we had prolonged the action of the bacteria, would we have favoured or hampered the development of the disease? And what about the myelin-like bacterium protein: where should it lie? On the surface, or inside? These are all questions – conclude the two researchers – which we will be trying to answer in the next years, in the hope to defeat this terrible illness. We could even imagine to develop a vaccine by which we could prevent the immune response associated to multiple sclerosis".

Francesco Ria | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.rm.unicatt.it

More articles from Health and Medicine:

nachricht Study tracks inner workings of the brain with new biosensor
16.08.2018 | Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität Bonn

nachricht Foods of the future
15.08.2018 | Georg-August-Universität Göttingen

All articles from Health and Medicine >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: It’s All in the Mix: Jülich Researchers are Developing Fast-Charging Solid-State Batteries

There are currently great hopes for solid-state batteries. They contain no liquid parts that could leak or catch fire. For this reason, they do not require cooling and are considered to be much safer, more reliable, and longer lasting than traditional lithium-ion batteries. Jülich scientists have now introduced a new concept that allows currents up to ten times greater during charging and discharging than previously described in the literature. The improvement was achieved by a “clever” choice of materials with a focus on consistently good compatibility. All components were made from phosphate compounds, which are well matched both chemically and mechanically.

The low current is considered one of the biggest hurdles in the development of solid-state batteries. It is the reason why the batteries take a relatively long...

Im Focus: Color effects from transparent 3D-printed nanostructures

New design tool automatically creates nanostructure 3D-print templates for user-given colors
Scientists present work at prestigious SIGGRAPH conference

Most of the objects we see are colored by pigments, but using pigments has disadvantages: such colors can fade, industrial pigments are often toxic, and...

Im Focus: Unraveling the nature of 'whistlers' from space in the lab

A new study sheds light on how ultralow frequency radio waves and plasmas interact

Scientists at the University of California, Los Angeles present new research on a curious cosmic phenomenon known as "whistlers" -- very low frequency packets...

Im Focus: New interactive machine learning tool makes car designs more aerodynamic

Scientists develop first tool to use machine learning methods to compute flow around interactively designable 3D objects. Tool will be presented at this year’s prestigious SIGGRAPH conference.

When engineers or designers want to test the aerodynamic properties of the newly designed shape of a car, airplane, or other object, they would normally model...

Im Focus: Robots as 'pump attendants': TU Graz develops robot-controlled rapid charging system for e-vehicles

Researchers from TU Graz and their industry partners have unveiled a world first: the prototype of a robot-controlled, high-speed combined charging system (CCS) for electric vehicles that enables series charging of cars in various parking positions.

Global demand for electric vehicles is forecast to rise sharply: by 2025, the number of new vehicle registrations is expected to reach 25 million per year....

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

VideoLinks
Industry & Economy
Event News

LaserForum 2018 deals with 3D production of components

17.08.2018 | Event News

Within reach of the Universe

08.08.2018 | Event News

A journey through the history of microscopy – new exhibition opens at the MDC

27.07.2018 | Event News

 
Latest News

A materials scientist’s dream come true

21.08.2018 | Materials Sciences

Quantum bugs, meet your new swatter

20.08.2018 | Information Technology

A novel synthetic antibody enables conditional “protein knockdown” in vertebrates

20.08.2018 | Life Sciences

VideoLinks
Science & Research
Overview of more VideoLinks >>>