Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in Europe: Managed or mismanaged?

07.09.2010
The European Respiratory Society as well as researchers from the World Health Organization (WHO) and the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) are warning against the dangers of multidrug-resistant TB.

Every year, over 9 million new cases of TB are reported worldwide, with almost 2 million deaths. To make matters worse, the threat of multidrug-resistant bacilli has emerged, making the disease more expensive and difficult to treat.

In 2010, the World Health Organization (WHO) reported an unexpectedly high prevalence of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis with peaks of 25% or more among new cases of TB in some settings. At present, an estimated 5% of the more than 9 million people who develop TB around the world every year are infected with an MDR-TB strain, i.e. a strain that is resistant to (at least) the two most powerful anti-TB drugs currently available, isoniazid and rifampicin.

During a joint press conference at the 20th Annual Congress of the European Respiratory Society, experts in the field of tuberculosis will address current challenges in the management of the disease, such as TB/HIV co-infection and the rise of resistant TB strains as well as present an European TB research network, TBNET, aimed at advancing science, clinical research, training, policy development and public health.

“TB is a global problem that needs to be dealt with by the international community,” urges Professor Giovanni Battista Migliori, ERS Assembly Head of Respiratory Infections and Director of the WHO Collaborating Centre for TB and Lung Disease, Tradate, Italy.

TBNET is an ERS-supported Clinical Research Collaboration (CRC) in the area of tuberculosis research, working in close collaboration with WHO and ECDC. The main areas of focus are the development of improved diagnostic methods and new drugs as well as the prevention and control of drug-resistant TB.

“One of the biggest problems in most European countries is that treatment success rates are far below the 85% target set by the WHO World Health Assembly, thereby promoting resistance to common anti-tuberculosis drugs” explains Dr Davide Manissero, Head of Section Respiratory Tract Infections and Tuberculosis Programme Coordinator at the ECDC, Stockholm, Sweden.

“Part of the problem is that treatment for multidrug-resistant TB takes substantially longer than for uncomplicated TB; treatment of MDR requires up to 24 months` worth of treatment. The drugs needed are less effective than the first-line drugs for the treatment of drug-susceptible TB and cause more side effects,” says Dr Manissero.

For multidrug-resistant TB, the treatment success rate is extremely low (31%).
A further threat is extensively multidrug-resistant TB (XDR-TB), defined as MDR-TB that is additionally resistant to any of the fluoroquinolones and any of the three injectable second-line anti-TB drugs, amikacin, kanamycin, and capreomycin.

The M/XDR-TB threat is further aggravated by the poor outcomes of this group of patients. In a cohort of 1,100 patients only 30.9% of those who started treatment in 2006 (2006 cohort) were successfully treated in the EU/EEA. A high percentage (13.2%) of these MDR-TB cases defaulted from treatment, increasing the risk for XDR-TB.

The latest figures on multidrug-resistant tuberculosis show about 440,000 cases of MDR-TB, causing at least 150,000 deaths. XDR-TB has been reported officially from 58 countries as of March 2010, explains Professor Mario Raviglione, Director, Stop TB Department, WHO, Geneva. “Of all cases of TB, over a million occurred among people living with HIV/AIDS and nearly half a million were fatal.”

It is unclear whether HIV infection is a risk factor for drug-resistant or MDR-TB. Known factors that can promote the development of resistance include malabsorption, drug intolerance, drug interactions, and noncompliance among intravenous drug abusers.

Dr Raviglione concludes: “Proper TB control based on early and rapid detection and adequate treatment until cure must be in place everywhere to interrupt transmission, avert deaths, and prevent MDR-TB.”

Dr. Anka Stegmeier-Petroianu | idw
Further information:
http://www.ersnet.org

More articles from Health and Medicine:

nachricht New antibody analysis accelerates rational vaccine design
09.08.2018 | Scripps Research Institute

nachricht Distrust of power influences choice of medical procedures
01.08.2018 | Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz

All articles from Health and Medicine >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: New interactive machine learning tool makes car designs more aerodynamic

Scientists develop first tool to use machine learning methods to compute flow around interactively designable 3D objects. Tool will be presented at this year’s prestigious SIGGRAPH conference.

When engineers or designers want to test the aerodynamic properties of the newly designed shape of a car, airplane, or other object, they would normally model...

Im Focus: Robots as 'pump attendants': TU Graz develops robot-controlled rapid charging system for e-vehicles

Researchers from TU Graz and their industry partners have unveiled a world first: the prototype of a robot-controlled, high-speed combined charging system (CCS) for electric vehicles that enables series charging of cars in various parking positions.

Global demand for electric vehicles is forecast to rise sharply: by 2025, the number of new vehicle registrations is expected to reach 25 million per year....

Im Focus: The “TRiC” to folding actin

Proteins must be folded correctly to fulfill their molecular functions in cells. Molecular assistants called chaperones help proteins exploit their inbuilt folding potential and reach the correct three-dimensional structure. Researchers at the Max Planck Institute of Biochemistry (MPIB) have demonstrated that actin, the most abundant protein in higher developed cells, does not have the inbuilt potential to fold and instead requires special assistance to fold into its active state. The chaperone TRiC uses a previously undescribed mechanism to perform actin folding. The study was recently published in the journal Cell.

Actin is the most abundant protein in highly developed cells and has diverse functions in processes like cell stabilization, cell division and muscle...

Im Focus: Lining up surprising behaviors of superconductor with one of the world's strongest magnets

Scientists have discovered that the electrical resistance of a copper-oxide compound depends on the magnetic field in a very unusual way -- a finding that could help direct the search for materials that can perfectly conduct electricity at room temperatur

What happens when really powerful magnets--capable of producing magnetic fields nearly two million times stronger than Earth's--are applied to materials that...

Im Focus: World record: Fastest 3-D tomographic images at BESSY II

The quality of materials often depends on the manufacturing process. In casting and welding, for example, the rate at which melts solidify and the resulting microstructure of the alloy is important. With metallic foams as well, it depends on exactly how the foaming process takes place. To understand these processes fully requires fast sensing capability. The fastest 3D tomographic images to date have now been achieved at the BESSY II X-ray source operated by the Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin.

Dr. Francisco Garcia-Moreno and his team have designed a turntable that rotates ultra-stably about its axis at a constant rotational speed. This really depends...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

VideoLinks
Industry & Economy
Event News

Within reach of the Universe

08.08.2018 | Event News

A journey through the history of microscopy – new exhibition opens at the MDC

27.07.2018 | Event News

2018 Work Research Conference

25.07.2018 | Event News

 
Latest News

'Building up' stretchable electronics to be as multipurpose as your smartphone

14.08.2018 | Information Technology

During HIV infection, antibody can block B cells from fighting pathogens

14.08.2018 | Life Sciences

First study on physical properties of giant cancer cells may inform new treatments

14.08.2018 | Life Sciences

VideoLinks
Science & Research
Overview of more VideoLinks >>>