The findings are published in the April 19, 2012 online issue of The Journal of Hepatology.
Two forms of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) are depicted in these images of liver biopsies from adults, taken from this study. The first shows nonalcoholic fatty liver only. Credit: Elizabeth Brunt, M.D., of Washington University in Saint Louis.
The second shows nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), a more serious condition with potential to progress to cirrhosis. Credit: Elizabeth Brunt, M.D., of Washington University in Saint Louis.
NALFD is the most common liver disease in the United States, affecting up to one third of American adults. It's characterized by abnormal fat accumulation in the liver. The specific cause or causes is not known, though obesity and diabetes are risk factors. Most patients with NAFLD have few or no symptoms, but in its most progressive form, known as nonalcoholic steatohepatitis or NASH, there is a significantly heightened risk of cirrhosis, liver cancer and liver-related death.NALFD is also a known risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Patients with NAFLD are approximately two times more likely to die from coronary heart disease than from liver disease. The study's authors wanted to know if the well-documented heart-healthy benefits of modest alcohol consumption outweighed alcohol's negative effects.
Schwimmer and colleagues discovered that the benefits of modest alcohol consumption were compelling, at least in terms of reducing the odds of patients with NAFLD from developing more severe forms of the disease. Patients with NASH are 10 times more likely to progress to cirrhosis, the final phase of chronic liver disease. Cirrhosis is the 12th leading cause of death in the U.S., killing an estimated 27,000 Americans annually.
"Our study showed that those people with modest alcohol intake – two drinks or less daily – had half the odds of developing NASH than people who drank no alcohol," said Schwimmer. "The reasons aren't entirely clear. It's known that alcohol can have beneficial effects on lipid levels, that it increases 'good' cholesterol, which tends to be low in NAFLD patients. Alcohol may improve insulin sensitivity, which has a role in NAFLD. And depending upon the type of alcohol, it may have anti-inflammatory effects."
The study also found that in patients with NAFLD, modest drinkers experienced less severe liver scarring than did lifelong non-drinkers.
The study did not evaluate the effects of different types of alcohol, such as beer or spirits. Schwimmer said to do so would require a much larger study. Also, the study's findings do not apply to children. All of the participants in the study were age 21 and older.
The current paper is based on analyses of 600 liver biopsies of patient's with NAFLD by a national panel of pathologists who had no identifying clinical information about the samples. The study excluded anyone who averaged more than two alcoholic drinks per day or who reported consuming five or more drinks in a day (binge-drinking) at least once a month. All of the patients were at least 21 years of age.
Schwimmer said the findings indicate patients with liver disease should be treated individually, with nuance.
"For a patient with cirrhosis or viral hepatitis, the data says even small amounts of alcohol can be bad. But that may not be applicable to all forms of liver disease. Forty million Americans have NAFLD. Physicians need to look at their patient's overall health, their CVD risk, their liver status, whether they're already drinking modestly or not. They need to put all of these things into a framework to determine risk. I suspect modest alcohol consumption will be an appropriate recommendation for many patients, but clearly not all."
Co-authors are Winston Dunn, departments of Pediatrics and Medicine, UC San Diego and Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Department of Medicine, University of Kansas Medical Center; Arun J. Sanyal, Division of Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition, Department of Internal Medicine, Virginia Commonwealth University Medical Center; Elizabeth M. Brunt, John Cochran VA Medical Center, Saint Louis and Division of Gastroenterology, Saint Louis University School of Medicine; Aynur Unalp-Arida, Department of Epidemilogy, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health; Michael Donohue, Division of Biostatics and Bioinformatics, Department of Family and Preventive Medicine, UC San Diego; and Arthur J. McCullough, Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Cleveland Clinic.
Funding for this research came, in part, from the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development and the National Cancer Institute.
Scott LaFee | EurekAlert!
Correct antibiotic dosing could preserve lung microbial diversity in cystic fibrosis
22.02.2019 | Children's National Health System
Researchers find trigger that turns strep infections into flesh-eating disease
19.02.2019 | Houston Methodist
An international research team including astronomers from the Max Planck Institute for Radio Astronomy in Bonn, Germany, has combined radio telescopes from five continents to prove the existence of a narrow stream of material, a so-called jet, emerging from the only gravitational wave event involving two neutron stars observed so far. With its high sensitivity and excellent performance, the 100-m radio telescope in Effelsberg played an important role in the observations.
In August 2017, two neutron stars were observed colliding, producing gravitational waves that were detected by the American LIGO and European Virgo detectors....
Up to now, OLEDs have been used exclusively as a novel lighting technology for use in luminaires and lamps. However, flexible organic technology can offer much more: as an active lighting surface, it can be combined with a wide variety of materials, not just to modify but to revolutionize the functionality and design of countless existing products. To exemplify this, the Fraunhofer FEP together with the company EMDE development of light GmbH will be presenting hybrid flexible OLEDs integrated into textile designs within the EU-funded project PI-SCALE for the first time at LOPEC (March 19-21, 2019 in Munich, Germany) as examples of some of the many possible applications.
The Fraunhofer FEP, a provider of research and development services in the field of organic electronics, has long been involved in the development of...
For the first time, an international team of scientists based in Regensburg, Germany, has recorded the orbitals of single molecules in different charge states in a novel type of microscopy. The research findings are published under the title “Mapping orbital changes upon electron transfer with tunneling microscopy on insulators” in the prestigious journal “Nature”.
The building blocks of matter surrounding us are atoms and molecules. The properties of that matter, however, are often not set by these building blocks...
Scientists at the University of Konstanz identify fierce competition between the human immune system and bacterial pathogens
Cell biologists from the University of Konstanz shed light on a recent evolutionary process in the human immune system and publish their findings in the...
Laser physicists have taken snapshots of carbon molecules C₆₀ showing how they transform in intense infrared light
When carbon molecules C₆₀ are exposed to an intense infrared light, they change their ball-like structure to a more elongated version. This has now been...
11.02.2019 | Event News
30.01.2019 | Event News
16.01.2019 | Event News
22.02.2019 | Physics and Astronomy
22.02.2019 | Materials Sciences
22.02.2019 | Life Sciences