Several medications can help people with alcohol use disorders maintain abstinence or reduce drinking, according to research from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.
he work, published today in the Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA) and funded by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ), provides additional options for clinicians to effectively address this global concern.
Although alcohol use disorders are associated with many health problems, including cancers, stroke and depression, fewer than one-third of people with the disorders receive any treatment and less than 10 percent receive medications to help reduce alcohol consumption.
"There are many studies that have tried to show whether certain medications can help with alcohol use disorders, but it is a lot of information to digest and many providers do not know what works or doesn't work," said Daniel Jonas, lead author of the study and professor in the department of medicine and the Cecil G. Sheps Center for Health Services Research. "When you synthesize all the evidence, it shows pretty clearly that some medications do work."
Jonas led a team from the RTI-UNC Evidence-based Practice Center to review published studies examining the use of drugs to treat alcohol use disorders. The researchers conducted a systematic review of 122 randomized controlled trials and one cohort study. They then graded the strength of the evidence on the impact of drugs on alcohol consumption.
They found that two drugs, acamprosate (brand name Campral) and oral naltrexone (brand name Revia), have the best evidence supporting their benefits. Both drugs reduced return to drinking and improved other drinking outcomes. Among medications used off-label (i.e., those not FDA approved for alcohol use disorders), moderate evidence showed improvement in some drinking outcomes for topiramate and nalmefene.
"The health implications of preventing return to drinking and reducing alcohol consumption are substantial," said Jonas. "Modeling studies have shown that such improvements would result in significant reductions in alcohol-attributable mortality, costs from health care, arrests and motor vehicle accidents."
"This work expands upon the growing evidence that medications can play a valuable role in the treatment of alcohol use disorders," said James Garbutt, professor of psychiatry and scientist at UNC's Bowles Center for Alcohol Studies and senior author on the paper. "We are hopeful that this information will encourage clinicians to strongly consider these medications and that individuals will gain awareness that there are medications that can help them to stop or significantly reduce their alcohol use."
The study was developed by the AHRQ-funded RTI-UNC Evidence-based Practice Center is a collaboration between RTI International and the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. Jonas co-directs the center with Meera Viswanathan at RTI. The review is an update of the first product of the center, which was published in 1999 in JAMA. Since 1999, there has been more than a tenfold increase in the number of individuals studied in controlled clinical trials of naltrexone and acamprosate, and many trials of medications that are not FDA-approved.
Thania Benios | Eurek Alert!
Skipping Meat on Occasion May Protect Against Type 2 Diabetes
25.06.2019 | Deutsches Institut für Ernährungsforschung Potsdam-Rehbrücke
Inhaling air pollution-like irritant alters defensive heart-lung reflex for hypertension
19.06.2019 | University of South Florida (USF Innovation)
From June 25th to 27th 2019, the Fraunhofer Institute for Digital Media Technology IDMT in Ilmenau (Germany) will be presenting a new solution for acoustic quality inspection allowing contact-free, non-destructive testing of manufactured parts and components. The method which has reached Technology Readiness Level 6 already, is currently being successfully tested in practical use together with a number of industrial partners.
Reducing machine downtime, manufacturing defects, and excessive scrap
The quality of additively manufactured components depends not only on the manufacturing process, but also on the inline process control. The process control ensures a reliable coating process because it detects deviations from the target geometry immediately. At LASER World of PHOTONICS 2019, the Fraunhofer Institute for Laser Technology ILT will be demonstrating how well bi-directional sensor technology can already be used for Laser Material Deposition (LMD) in combination with commercial optics at booth A2.431.
Fraunhofer ILT has been developing optical sensor technology specifically for production measurement technology for around 10 years. In particular, its »bd-1«...
The well-known representation of chemical elements is just one example of how objects can be arranged and classified
The periodic table of elements that most chemistry books depict is only one special case. This tabular overview of the chemical elements, which goes back to...
Light can be used not only to measure materials’ properties, but also to change them. Especially interesting are those cases in which the function of a material can be modified, such as its ability to conduct electricity or to store information in its magnetic state. A team led by Andrea Cavalleri from the Max Planck Institute for the Structure and Dynamics of Matter in Hamburg used terahertz frequency light pulses to transform a non-ferroelectric material into a ferroelectric one.
Ferroelectricity is a state in which the constituent lattice “looks” in one specific direction, forming a macroscopic electrical polarisation. The ability to...
Researchers at TU Graz calculate the most accurate gravity field determination of the Earth using 1.16 billion satellite measurements. This yields valuable knowledge for climate research.
The Earth’s gravity fluctuates from place to place. Geodesists use this phenomenon to observe geodynamic and climatological processes. Using...
24.06.2019 | Event News
29.04.2019 | Event News
17.04.2019 | Event News
25.06.2019 | Architecture and Construction
25.06.2019 | Life Sciences
25.06.2019 | Power and Electrical Engineering