Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Learning by osmosis

17.11.2008
New brain images show subconscious learning in action and could be used to monitor language rehabilitation

When you listen to someone speaking, it may seem like the words are segmented by pauses, much like the words on this page are separated by spaces. But in reality, you hear a continuous stream of sounds that your brain must organize into meaningful chunks.

One process that mediates this ability is called statistical learning, by which the brain automatically keeps track of how often events, such as sounds, occur together. Now a team of RIKEN scientists has found a signature pattern of brain activity that can predict a person’s degree of achievement in this type of task1.

The team led by Kazuo Okanoya presented volunteers with a 20-minute recording of an artificial language, which they heard passively in three 6.6-minute sessions. While the recording played, participants’ brain activity was measured using an imaging technique called electroencephalograms or EEGs. The researchers then analyzed how the EEG patterns related to events in the recorded language.

This language, instead of being composed of pronounceable syllables, contained only tones, similar to keyboard notes. “We used nonsense tone words to detect basic perceptual processes that are independent of linguistic faculty,” explains team-member Dilshat Abla. This way, the researchers were able to focus on the brain-activity signature of general statistical learning, rather than the specific example of language. The recording heard by the participants consisted of six ‘words’ containing three tones each, but since they were played together without gaps, the word composition would not have been immediately obvious. The participants were told to relax and listen to the streaming sound, and at the end of the experiment, they were tested on which tone triplets came from their recording and which were randomly generated.

The participants succeeded in this discrimination, which revealed to the researchers that they had performed statistical learning without exerting conscious effort. Those who earned average scores in this test showed a distinctive pattern of brain activity in the third recording session. These electric signatures, known as event-related potentials or ERPs, tended to occur 400 milliseconds after the start of a new tone word. Those who scored the lowest did not exhibit these ERPs in any session, suggesting they were not segmenting the start of each word as effectively.

The highest-scoring volunteers did show these ERPs, but only in their first session. Abla explains that the effect is “largest during the discovery phase of the statistical structure,” and represents the process rather than the result of statistical learning.

1. Abla, D., Katahira, K., & Okanoya, K. On-line assessment of statistical learning by event-related potentials. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience 20, 952–964 (2008).

The corresponding author for this highlight is based at the RIKEN Laboratory for Biolinguistics

Saeko Okada | ResearchSEA
Further information:
http://www.rikenresearch.riken.jp/research/582/
http://www.researchsea.com

More articles from Health and Medicine:

nachricht Energizing the immune system to eat cancer
22.01.2019 | University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine

nachricht Early Prediction of Alzheimer’s Progression in Blood
22.01.2019 | Deutsches Zentrum für Neurodegenerative Erkrankungen e.V. (DZNE)

All articles from Health and Medicine >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Energizing the immune system to eat cancer

Abramson Cancer Center study identifies method of priming macrophages to boost anti-tumor response

Immune cells called macrophages are supposed to serve and protect, but cancer has found ways to put them to sleep. Now researchers at the Abramson Cancer...

Im Focus: Ten-year anniversary of the Neumayer Station III

The scientific and political community alike stress the importance of German Antarctic research

Joint Press Release from the BMBF and AWI

The Antarctic is a frigid continent south of the Antarctic Circle, where researchers are the only inhabitants. Despite the hostile conditions, here the Alfred...

Im Focus: Ultra ultrasound to transform new tech

World first experiments on sensor that may revolutionise everything from medical devices to unmanned vehicles

The new sensor - capable of detecting vibrations of living cells - may revolutionise everything from medical devices to unmanned vehicles.

Im Focus: Flying Optical Cats for Quantum Communication

Dead and alive at the same time? Researchers at the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics have implemented Erwin Schrödinger’s paradoxical gedanken experiment employing an entangled atom-light state.

In 1935 Erwin Schrödinger formulated a thought experiment designed to capture the paradoxical nature of quantum physics. The crucial element of this gedanken...

Im Focus: Nanocellulose for novel implants: Ears from the 3D-printer

Cellulose obtained from wood has amazing material properties. Empa researchers are now equipping the biodegradable material with additional functionalities to produce implants for cartilage diseases using 3D printing.

It all starts with an ear. Empa researcher Michael Hausmann removes the object shaped like a human ear from the 3D printer and explains:

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

VideoLinks
Industry & Economy
Event News

Our digital society in 2040

16.01.2019 | Event News

11th International Symposium: “Advanced Battery Power – Kraftwerk Batterie” Aachen, 3-4 April 2019

14.01.2019 | Event News

ICTM Conference 2019: Digitization emerges as an engineering trend for turbomachinery construction

12.12.2018 | Event News

 
Latest News

Mechanical engineers develop process to 3D print piezoelectric materials

22.01.2019 | Materials Sciences

Energizing the immune system to eat cancer

22.01.2019 | Health and Medicine

Early Prediction of Alzheimer’s Progression in Blood

22.01.2019 | Health and Medicine

VideoLinks
Science & Research
Overview of more VideoLinks >>>