Study Shows Safety and Effectiveness of Extradural Brain Stimulation
The researchers evaluated EMCS in nine patients with Parkinson's disease. Over the past decade, DBS using electrodes implanted in specific areas within the brain has become an accepted treatment for Parkinson's disease. In the EMCS technique, a relatively simple surgical procedure is performed to place a strip of four electrodes in an "extradural" location—on top of the tough membrane (dura) lining the brain.
The electrodes were placed over a brain area called the motor cortex, which governs voluntary muscle movements. The study was designed to demonstrate the safety of the EMCS approach, and to provide preliminary information on its effectiveness in relieving the various types of movement abnormalities in Parkinson's disease.
The electrode placement procedure and subsequent electrical stimulation were safe, with no surgical complications or other adverse events. In particular, the patients had no changes in intellectual function or behavior and no seizures or other signs of epilepsy.
Extradural stimulation led to small but significant and lasting improvements in control of voluntary movement. After one year, motor symptoms improved by an average of 13 percent on a standard Parkinson's disease rating scale, while the patient was off medications.
'Remarkable' Improvement in Walking and Related Symptoms
The improvement appeared after three to four weeks of electrical stimulation and persisted for a few weeks after stimulation was stopped. In one case where the stimulator was accidentally switched off, it took four weeks before the patient even noticed.
Extradural stimulation was particularly effective in relieving the "axial" symptoms of Parkinson's disease, such as difficulties walking. Patients had significant improvement in walking ability, including fewer problems with "freezing" of gait. The EMCS procedure also reduced tremors and other abnormal movements while improving scores on a quality-of-life questionnaire.
Although DBS is an effective treatment for Parkinson's disease, it's not appropriate for all patients. Some patients have health conditions or old age that would make surgery for electrode placement too risky. Other patients—including four of the nine patients in the new study—are eligible for DBS but don't want to undergo electrode placement surgery.
The concept of extradural stimulation is not new, but previous studies have had important limitations, with inconsistent results. The new report is the largest study of EMCS performed using a standard technique in a well-defined group of patients.
The findings show that extradural stimulation is not only safe for patients with Parkinson's disease, but also effective in improving movement disorder symptoms—with "remarkable effects on axial symptoms," according to Dr. Cioni and colleagues. Although the improvement is not as great as with DBS, the researchers believe that EMCS "should be considered as an alternative option" for at least some groups of patients. Further studies, including long-term follow-up, are underway.
Neurosurgery, the Official Journal of the Congress of Neurological Surgeons, is your most complete window to the contemporary field of neurosurgery. Members of the Congress and non-member subscribers receive 3,000 pages per year packed with the very latest science, technology, and medicine, not to mention full-text online access to the world's most complete, up-to-the-minute neurosurgery resource. For professionals aware of the rapid pace of developments in the field, Neurosurgery is nothing short of indispensable.
About Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
Lippincott Williams & Wilkins (LWW) is a leading international publisher of trusted content delivered in innovative ways to practitioners, professionals and students to learn new skills, stay current on their practice, and make important decisions to improve patient care and clinical outcomes. LWW is part of Wolters Kluwer Health, a leading global provider of information, business intelligence and point-of-care solutions for the healthcare industry. Wolters Kluwer Health is part of Wolters Kluwer, a market-leading global information services company with 2011 annual revenues of €3.4 billion ($4.7 billion).
Connie Hughes | EurekAlert!
Purdue cancer identity technology makes it easier to find a tumor's 'address'
16.11.2018 | Purdue University
Microgel powder fights infection and helps wounds heal
14.11.2018 | Michigan Technological University
Researchers at the University of New Hampshire have captured a difficult-to-view singular event involving "magnetic reconnection"--the process by which sparse particles and energy around Earth collide producing a quick but mighty explosion--in the Earth's magnetotail, the magnetic environment that trails behind the planet.
Magnetic reconnection has remained a bit of a mystery to scientists. They know it exists and have documented the effects that the energy explosions can...
Biochips have been developed at TU Wien (Vienna), on which tissue can be produced and examined. This allows supplying the tissue with different substances in a very controlled way.
Cultivating human cells in the Petri dish is not a big challenge today. Producing artificial tissue, however, permeated by fine blood vessels, is a much more...
Faster and secure data communication: This is the goal of a new joint project involving physicists from the University of Würzburg. The German Federal Ministry of Education and Research funds the project with 14.8 million euro.
In our digital world data security and secure communication are becoming more and more important. Quantum communication is a promising approach to achieve...
On Saturday, 10 November 2018, the research icebreaker Polarstern will leave its homeport of Bremerhaven, bound for Cape Town, South Africa.
When choosing materials to make something, trade-offs need to be made between a host of properties, such as thickness, stiffness and weight. Depending on the application in question, finding just the right balance is the difference between success and failure
Now, a team of Penn Engineers has demonstrated a new material they call "nanocardboard," an ultrathin equivalent of corrugated paper cardboard. A square...
09.11.2018 | Event News
06.11.2018 | Event News
23.10.2018 | Event News
16.11.2018 | Health and Medicine
16.11.2018 | Life Sciences
16.11.2018 | Life Sciences