Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Drug-resistant MRSA bacteria — here to stay in both hospital and community (PLoS Pathogens)

18.03.2013
The drug-resistant bac­te­ria known as MRSA, once con­fined to hos­pi­tals but now wide­spread in com­mu­ni­ties, will likely con­tinue to exist in both set­tings as sep­a­rate strains, accord­ing to a new study.
The pre­dic­tion that both strains will coex­ist is reas­sur­ing because pre­vi­ous pro­jec­tions indi­cated that the more inva­sive and fast-growing com­mu­nity strains would over­take and elim­i­nate hos­pi­tal strains, pos­si­bly pos­ing a threat to pub­lic health.

Researchers at Prince­ton Uni­ver­sity used math­e­mat­i­cal mod­els to explore what will hap­pen to com­mu­nity and hos­pi­tal MRSA strains, which dif­fer genet­i­cally. Orig­i­nally MRSA, which is short for methicillin-resistant Staphy­lo­coc­cus aureus, was con­fined to hos­pi­tals. How­ever, community-associated strains emerged in the past decade and can spread widely from per­son to per­son in schools, ath­letic facil­i­ties and homes.

Both com­mu­nity and hos­pi­tal strains cause dis­eases rang­ing from skin and soft-tissue infec­tions to pneu­mo­nia and sep­ticemia. Hos­pi­tal MRSA is resis­tant to numer­ous antibi­otics and is very dif­fi­cult to treat, while com­mu­nity MRSA is resis­tant to fewer antibiotics.

The new study found that these dif­fer­ences in antibi­otic resis­tance, com­bined with more aggres­sive antibi­otic usage pat­terns in hos­pi­tals ver­sus the com­mu­nity set­ting, over time will per­mit hos­pi­tal strains to sur­vive despite the com­pe­ti­tion from com­mu­nity strains. Hospital-based antibi­otic usage is likely to suc­cess­fully treat patients infected with com­mu­nity strains, pre­vent­ing the new­comer strains from spread­ing to new patients and gain­ing the foothold they need to out-compete the hos­pi­tal strains.

The researchers made their pre­dic­tions by using math­e­mat­i­cal mod­els of MRSA trans­mis­sion that take into account data on drug-usage, resis­tance pro­files, person-to-person con­tact, and patient age.

Pub­lished Feb­ru­ary 28 in the jour­nal PLOS Pathogens, the study was con­ducted by post­doc­toral researcher Roger Kouyos, now a scholar at the Uni­ver­sity of Zurich, and Eili Klein, a grad­u­ate stu­dent who is now an assis­tant pro­fes­sor in the Johns Hop­kins School of Med­i­cine. They con­ducted the work under the advise­ment of Bryan Gren­fell, Princeton’s Kathryn Briger and Sarah Fen­ton Pro­fes­sor of Ecol­ogy and Evo­lu­tion­ary Biol­ogy and Pub­lic Affairs at Princeton’s Woodrow Wil­son School of Inter­na­tional and Pub­lic Affairs.

Read the arti­cle (open access).

Kouyos R., Klein E. & Gren­fell B. (2013). Hospital-Community Inter­ac­tions Fos­ter Coex­is­tence between Methicillin-Resistant Strains of Staphy­lo­coc­cus aureus. PLoS Pathogens, 9 (2) e1003134. PMID: 23468619

RK was sup­ported by the Swiss National Sci­ence Foun­da­tion (Grants PA00P3_131498 and PZ00P3_142411). EK was sup­ported by Prince­ton Uni­ver­sity (Harold W. Dodds Fel­low­ship), as well as the Mod­els of Infec­tious Dis­ease Agent Study (MIDAS), under Award Num­ber U01GM070708 from the National Insti­tute of Gen­eral Med­ical Sci­ences. BG was sup­ported by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foun­da­tion; the Research and Pol­icy for Infec­tious Dis­ease Dynam­ics (RAPIDD) pro­gram of the Sci­ence and Tech­nol­ogy Direc­torate, Depart­ment of Home­land Secu­rity; and the Fog­a­rty Inter­na­tional Cen­ter, National Insti­tutes of Health.

Catherine Zandonella | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.princeton.edu

More articles from Health and Medicine:

nachricht Why might reading make myopic?
18.07.2018 | Universitätsklinikum Tübingen

nachricht Unique brain 'fingerprint' can predict drug effectiveness
11.07.2018 | McGill University

All articles from Health and Medicine >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: First evidence on the source of extragalactic particles

For the first time ever, scientists have determined the cosmic origin of highest-energy neutrinos. A research group led by IceCube scientist Elisa Resconi, spokesperson of the Collaborative Research Center SFB1258 at the Technical University of Munich (TUM), provides an important piece of evidence that the particles detected by the IceCube neutrino telescope at the South Pole originate from a galaxy four billion light-years away from Earth.

To rule out other origins with certainty, the team led by neutrino physicist Elisa Resconi from the Technical University of Munich and multi-wavelength...

Im Focus: Magnetic vortices: Two independent magnetic skyrmion phases discovered in a single material

For the first time a team of researchers have discovered two different phases of magnetic skyrmions in a single material. Physicists of the Technical Universities of Munich and Dresden and the University of Cologne can now better study and understand the properties of these magnetic structures, which are important for both basic research and applications.

Whirlpools are an everyday experience in a bath tub: When the water is drained a circular vortex is formed. Typically, such whirls are rather stable. Similar...

Im Focus: Breaking the bond: To take part or not?

Physicists working with Roland Wester at the University of Innsbruck have investigated if and how chemical reactions can be influenced by targeted vibrational excitation of the reactants. They were able to demonstrate that excitation with a laser beam does not affect the efficiency of a chemical exchange reaction and that the excited molecular group acts only as a spectator in the reaction.

A frequently used reaction in organic chemistry is nucleophilic substitution. It plays, for example, an important role in in the synthesis of new chemical...

Im Focus: New 2D Spectroscopy Methods

Optical spectroscopy allows investigating the energy structure and dynamic properties of complex quantum systems. Researchers from the University of Würzburg present two new approaches of coherent two-dimensional spectroscopy.

"Put an excitation into the system and observe how it evolves." According to physicist Professor Tobias Brixner, this is the credo of optical spectroscopy....

Im Focus: Chemical reactions in the light of ultrashort X-ray pulses from free-electron lasers

Ultra-short, high-intensity X-ray flashes open the door to the foundations of chemical reactions. Free-electron lasers generate these kinds of pulses, but there is a catch: the pulses vary in duration and energy. An international research team has now presented a solution: Using a ring of 16 detectors and a circularly polarized laser beam, they can determine both factors with attosecond accuracy.

Free-electron lasers (FELs) generate extremely short and intense X-ray flashes. Researchers can use these flashes to resolve structures with diameters on the...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

VideoLinks
Industry & Economy
Event News

Leading experts in Diabetes, Metabolism and Biomedical Engineering discuss Precision Medicine

13.07.2018 | Event News

Conference on Laser Polishing – LaP: Fine Tuning for Surfaces

12.07.2018 | Event News

11th European Wood-based Panel Symposium 2018: Meeting point for the wood-based materials industry

03.07.2018 | Event News

 
Latest News

Global study of world's beaches shows threat to protected areas

19.07.2018 | Earth Sciences

New creepy, crawly search and rescue robot developed at Ben-Gurion U

19.07.2018 | Power and Electrical Engineering

Metal too 'gummy' to cut? Draw on it with a Sharpie or glue stick, science says

19.07.2018 | Materials Sciences

VideoLinks
Science & Research
Overview of more VideoLinks >>>