Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Can Cancer Be Turned Against Itself?

05.02.2013
Immune system can use melanoma's own proteins to kill off cancer cells, TAU researchers find

Though a small group of proteins, the family called Ras controls a large number of cellular functions, including cell growth, differentiation, and survival.

And because the protein has a hand in cellular division, mutated Ras, which can be detected in one-third of all tumors, contributes to many human cancers by allowing for the rapid growth of diseased cells.

Now Prof. Yoel Kloog of Tel Aviv University's Department of Neurobiology, along with Dr. Itamar Goldstein of TAU's Sackler Faculty of Medicine and the Sheba Medical Center and their students Helly Vernitsky and Dr. Oded Rechavi, has found that oncogenic Ras, which promotes cancer development, can also alert the immune system to the presence of cancer cells.

For the first time, the researchers have shown the transfer of oncogenic Ras in human cells from melanoma cells to T cells, which belong to a group of white blood cells that are part of the immune system. This transfer allows the immune cells to gather crucial intelligence on what they are fighting and develop the necessary cytokines, or signalling molecules, to kill the melanoma cells.

Prof. Kloog suggests that a drug that enhances the transfer of the oncogene from the tumor to the immune cells is a potential therapy to augment the anti-cancer immune response. This research has been published in the Journal of Immunology.

Finding the tipping point

Although they found that immune cells often exchange proteins among themselves, the discovery that melanoma cells transfer mutated Ras is an intriguing first. And it's this initial transfer that begins what the researchers call a positive feedback loop.

In the lab, researchers incubated T-cells from patients with human melanoma cells that had originated from tumors to track the process of handing-off various proteins. They uncovered a circuit that runs between the cancer and immune cells. Once the melanoma cells pass oncogenic Ras to the T-cells, the T-cells are activated and begin to produce cytokines, which enhances their capacity to kill cancer cells.

As these melanoma cells pass along the mutated Ras, the immune cells become increasingly active. Eventually, enough oncogenic material is transferred across the immune cells' threshold, causing the T-cells to act on the melanoma cells from which the oncogenic Ras was derived. Ultimately, this transfer tips the scales in favor of the immune cells, the researchers say.

Exploiting the information transfer

The next step is to develop a therapy that can enhance the transfer in patients with cancers linked to oncogenic Ras, says Prof. Kloog. And although their research has so far focused on melanoma, which is known to elicit the response of the immune system, he believes that this finding could be applicable to other types of cancers.

There is a constant balancing act between cancer cells and the immune system, says Dr. Goldstein. Under normal circumstances, the immune system will kill some cancerous cells on a daily basis. The disease becomes critical when the immune system can no longer keep cancer cells in check. Although there are many theories as to how cancer cells break free of this cycle, scientists are still attempting to discover why this occurs.

Prof. Kloog and Dr. Goldstein hope that this research leads to a better understanding of how the immune system fights tumors. "It's a part of the interaction between cancer and the immune system that is not well known," says Dr. Goldstein. "We are trying to gather more comprehensive data on all the proteins that are being passed around, and how this information impacts the immune system's response to cancer."

George Hunka | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.aftau.org

More articles from Health and Medicine:

nachricht Study tracks inner workings of the brain with new biosensor
16.08.2018 | Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität Bonn

nachricht Foods of the future
15.08.2018 | Georg-August-Universität Göttingen

All articles from Health and Medicine >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Color effects from transparent 3D-printed nanostructures

New design tool automatically creates nanostructure 3D-print templates for user-given colors
Scientists present work at prestigious SIGGRAPH conference

Most of the objects we see are colored by pigments, but using pigments has disadvantages: such colors can fade, industrial pigments are often toxic, and...

Im Focus: Unraveling the nature of 'whistlers' from space in the lab

A new study sheds light on how ultralow frequency radio waves and plasmas interact

Scientists at the University of California, Los Angeles present new research on a curious cosmic phenomenon known as "whistlers" -- very low frequency packets...

Im Focus: New interactive machine learning tool makes car designs more aerodynamic

Scientists develop first tool to use machine learning methods to compute flow around interactively designable 3D objects. Tool will be presented at this year’s prestigious SIGGRAPH conference.

When engineers or designers want to test the aerodynamic properties of the newly designed shape of a car, airplane, or other object, they would normally model...

Im Focus: Robots as 'pump attendants': TU Graz develops robot-controlled rapid charging system for e-vehicles

Researchers from TU Graz and their industry partners have unveiled a world first: the prototype of a robot-controlled, high-speed combined charging system (CCS) for electric vehicles that enables series charging of cars in various parking positions.

Global demand for electric vehicles is forecast to rise sharply: by 2025, the number of new vehicle registrations is expected to reach 25 million per year....

Im Focus: The “TRiC” to folding actin

Proteins must be folded correctly to fulfill their molecular functions in cells. Molecular assistants called chaperones help proteins exploit their inbuilt folding potential and reach the correct three-dimensional structure. Researchers at the Max Planck Institute of Biochemistry (MPIB) have demonstrated that actin, the most abundant protein in higher developed cells, does not have the inbuilt potential to fold and instead requires special assistance to fold into its active state. The chaperone TRiC uses a previously undescribed mechanism to perform actin folding. The study was recently published in the journal Cell.

Actin is the most abundant protein in highly developed cells and has diverse functions in processes like cell stabilization, cell division and muscle...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

VideoLinks
Industry & Economy
Event News

LaserForum 2018 deals with 3D production of components

17.08.2018 | Event News

Within reach of the Universe

08.08.2018 | Event News

A journey through the history of microscopy – new exhibition opens at the MDC

27.07.2018 | Event News

 
Latest News

Smallest transistor worldwide switches current with a single atom in solid electrolyte

17.08.2018 | Physics and Astronomy

Robots as Tools and Partners in Rehabilitation

17.08.2018 | Information Technology

Climate Impact Research in Hannover: Small Plants against Large Waves

17.08.2018 | Life Sciences

VideoLinks
Science & Research
Overview of more VideoLinks >>>