Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Cancer drug alleviates learning and memory problems in mice

18.09.2015

Researchers in Göttingen, Germany, have identified a cancer drug as a prototype drug that may be used to treat Alzheimer’s disease. This substance, known as “Vorinostat”, was found to alleviate learning and memory problems in mice.

The scientists were also able to clarify how the substance acts upon the metabolism of nerve cells. A team led by Prof. André Fischer, who is a researcher at the German Center for Neurodegenerative Diseases (DZNE) and the University Medical Center Göttingen (UMG), reports these findings in the “Journal of Clinical Investigation”. The scientists now intend to test whether this or similar drugs may slow down the cognitive decline of people with dementia.


The hippocampal region, the focus of the current study, is a central part of the brain machinery involved in memory and also one of the first regions to be affected in cognitive decline conditions. The glowing dots are individual neurons. Source: DZNE/E. Benito-Garagorri

Alzheimer’s disease interferes with the organism’s normal functioning in many ways. One aspect that is increasingly becoming the focus of research is gene expression. This term is used to describe the phenomenon that only part of the DNA in a cell is active at any time.

“Some genes are switched on and others are switched off depending on the cell type and circumstance,” explains Fischer, site speaker for the DZNE in Göttingen and professor at the UMG. “In Alzheimer’s, this pattern of activity is dysregulated, particularly in the nerve cells inside the brain. This impairs learning skills and memory.”

Influencing gene activity

Certain gene expression regulators, called “histone deacetylase inhibitors”, have been under consideration for some time as a possible treatment for Alzheimer’s disease. Vorinostat - also known as SAHA and currently used to treat lymphoma - is one of the substances in this category.

“These drugs act upon helper proteins that are involved in gene expression. This can have a positive effect on medical conditions,” says Fischer. Such an impact was suggested by previous laboratory studies. However, as the researcher explains, until now there were not enough data to test these substances on patients.

Study of mice

“For this reason we made a detailed study. We looked how Vorinostat acts upon signs of aging, and also how it affects signs of disease. Our intention was to provide a basis for innovative clinical studies” says the neuroscientist.”

The researchers treated two groups of mice with learning and memory-related difficulties. In one group, the cognitive problems were age-related. The mice in the second group were younger, but harboured a genetic defect that leads to accumulation of protein aggregates such as those found in Alzheimer’s patients. These animals also showed distinct cognitive impairments.

“Vorinostat improved the learning and memory skills in both groups“, says Fischer. “We also found that it acts primarily on neurons. The drug alleviated brain inflammation and restored gene expression to an almost normal pattern.”

Furthermore, the study showed how Vorinostat promotes the ability of nerve cells to link up with each other. This ability is called “synaptic plasticity”. “Synaptic plasticity is essential for cognition”, Fischer explains. “Synaptic plasticity allows the brain to build connections among neurons and to rearrange them when needed. This is a prerequisite in order to process information efficiently.”

Next step: study with patients

“Ultimately, we were able to show what Vorinostat actually does - not only how it influences symptoms, but also what happens at the cellular level,” Fischer summarizes. “In the end, we now have enough data to test the effects on patients. This is a classic example of how fundamental research can pave the way for clinical studies.”

Based on these results, a DZNE clinical study involving patients in the early stages of Alzheimer’s disease is planned. This study is to begin very soon, and will also be supported by the “Alzheimer Stiftung Göttingen” of the University Medical Center Göttingen.

Original publication:
„Reinstating transcriptome plasticity and memory in models for cognitive decline”, Eva Benito, Hendrik Urbanke, Binu Ramachandran, Jonas Barth, Rashi Halder, Ankit Awasthi, Gaurav Jain, Vincenzo Capece, Susanne Burkhardt, Magdalena Navarro-Sala, Sankari Nagarajan, Anna-Lena Schütz, Steven Johnson, Stefan Bonn, Reinhardt Lührmann, Camin Dean, André Fischer, Journal of Clinical Investigation (2015), doi: 10.1172/JCI79942

Weitere Informationen:

http://www.dzne.de/en/about-us/public-relations/meldungen/2015/press-release-no-...

Dr. Marcus Neitzert | idw - Informationsdienst Wissenschaft

More articles from Health and Medicine:

nachricht Why might reading make myopic?
18.07.2018 | Universitätsklinikum Tübingen

nachricht Unique brain 'fingerprint' can predict drug effectiveness
11.07.2018 | McGill University

All articles from Health and Medicine >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: First evidence on the source of extragalactic particles

For the first time ever, scientists have determined the cosmic origin of highest-energy neutrinos. A research group led by IceCube scientist Elisa Resconi, spokesperson of the Collaborative Research Center SFB1258 at the Technical University of Munich (TUM), provides an important piece of evidence that the particles detected by the IceCube neutrino telescope at the South Pole originate from a galaxy four billion light-years away from Earth.

To rule out other origins with certainty, the team led by neutrino physicist Elisa Resconi from the Technical University of Munich and multi-wavelength...

Im Focus: Magnetic vortices: Two independent magnetic skyrmion phases discovered in a single material

For the first time a team of researchers have discovered two different phases of magnetic skyrmions in a single material. Physicists of the Technical Universities of Munich and Dresden and the University of Cologne can now better study and understand the properties of these magnetic structures, which are important for both basic research and applications.

Whirlpools are an everyday experience in a bath tub: When the water is drained a circular vortex is formed. Typically, such whirls are rather stable. Similar...

Im Focus: Breaking the bond: To take part or not?

Physicists working with Roland Wester at the University of Innsbruck have investigated if and how chemical reactions can be influenced by targeted vibrational excitation of the reactants. They were able to demonstrate that excitation with a laser beam does not affect the efficiency of a chemical exchange reaction and that the excited molecular group acts only as a spectator in the reaction.

A frequently used reaction in organic chemistry is nucleophilic substitution. It plays, for example, an important role in in the synthesis of new chemical...

Im Focus: New 2D Spectroscopy Methods

Optical spectroscopy allows investigating the energy structure and dynamic properties of complex quantum systems. Researchers from the University of Würzburg present two new approaches of coherent two-dimensional spectroscopy.

"Put an excitation into the system and observe how it evolves." According to physicist Professor Tobias Brixner, this is the credo of optical spectroscopy....

Im Focus: Chemical reactions in the light of ultrashort X-ray pulses from free-electron lasers

Ultra-short, high-intensity X-ray flashes open the door to the foundations of chemical reactions. Free-electron lasers generate these kinds of pulses, but there is a catch: the pulses vary in duration and energy. An international research team has now presented a solution: Using a ring of 16 detectors and a circularly polarized laser beam, they can determine both factors with attosecond accuracy.

Free-electron lasers (FELs) generate extremely short and intense X-ray flashes. Researchers can use these flashes to resolve structures with diameters on the...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

VideoLinks
Industry & Economy
Event News

Leading experts in Diabetes, Metabolism and Biomedical Engineering discuss Precision Medicine

13.07.2018 | Event News

Conference on Laser Polishing – LaP: Fine Tuning for Surfaces

12.07.2018 | Event News

11th European Wood-based Panel Symposium 2018: Meeting point for the wood-based materials industry

03.07.2018 | Event News

 
Latest News

Global study of world's beaches shows threat to protected areas

19.07.2018 | Earth Sciences

New creepy, crawly search and rescue robot developed at Ben-Gurion U

19.07.2018 | Power and Electrical Engineering

Metal too 'gummy' to cut? Draw on it with a Sharpie or glue stick, science says

19.07.2018 | Materials Sciences

VideoLinks
Science & Research
Overview of more VideoLinks >>>