Genetic mutations in the mitochondria (part of the cell that produces energy) cause the disorder. Currently, there is no cure for LHON. However, Guy and his team have successfully modified a virus and used it to introduce healthy genes into the mitochondria to correct the genetic defect.
Using experimental models, they have proven that it is both safe and effective to replace mutated genes with healthy ones and that doing so prevents deterioration of the retinal cells that form the optic nerve. This research demonstrates that when efficiently introduced into mitochondria, normal DNA can correct a biochemical defect in cellular energy production and restore visual function.
"A wide range of other factors, including aging, cancer, and Parkinson's disease, are also caused by mutations in the mitochondria," said Dr. Guy. "This new approach shows the vast potential for genetic-therapy applications, while helping to address a significant cause of blindness."
The healthy genes were delivered into the mitochondria via an innovative viral delivery system. Specifically, Guy redirected the adeno-associated virus (a small virus that infects humans but is not known to cause disease) to the mitochondria rather than to its typical target, the nucleus, where most genes are housed within the cell. He did so via a mitochondrial-targeting sequence (a peptide chain that directs the transport of a protein). This permitted the replacement of the defective mitochondrial gene with a healthy one, which then restored energy production to the affected ocular cells. Two National Institutes of Health/National Eye Institute grants, totaling $6.1 million funded this research, which began in 2007.
"Other research studies have shown that LHON patients who have lost their vision still have some sensitivity to light," said Guy. "This indicated that if you can restore the functioning of those cells through gene therapy, those patients could see again." In conjunction with his research, Guy explored why only about 50 percent of patients with the genetic mutation develop LHON, while others do not.
Known for exploring gene therapy as a potential treatment for diseases of the optic nerve, Guy holds several patents related to mitochondrial gene therapy biotechnology. His next steps will be to investigate incorporating all three genes that cause LHON into a single viral carrier and hopefully receive FDA approval to inject therapeutic genes into patients who have visual loss from mitochondrial disease.
On April 20, 2012, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (PNAS) - one of the world's most-cited multidisciplinary scientific serials - published an article by Guy about this recent breakthrough. Click here to read the article.
About Bascom Palmer Eye Institute
Bascom Palmer Eye Institute of the University of Miami Miller School of Medicine – part of UHealth – University of Miami Health System, has been ranked #1 in ophthalmology the nation for the past eight consecutive years, as published in U.S. News & World Report. Having earned an international reputation as one of the premier providers of eye care in the world, Bascom Palmer has been ranked #1 in patient care and residency training by Ophthalmology Times. As the largest ophthalmic care, vision research, and educational facility in the southeastern United States, Bascom Palmer treats more than 250,000 patients and nearly every ophthalmic condition each year. Additionally, more than 12,000 surgeries are performed annually. Founded in 1962, Bascom Palmer has patient care facilities in Miami, Palm Beach Gardens, Naples, and Plantation, Florida. For more information, contact the firstname.lastname@example.org, Bascom Palmer's marketing and communications department at (305) 326-6190, or visit bascompalmer.org.
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